Welcome to the HPRC Blog. We've got lots of information here, from quick tips to in-depth posts about detailed human performance optimization topics.
Wheat products such as bread and pasta are mainstays of our diets. However, some people are sensitive to gluten, a blend of two proteins found in wheat and other grains such as rye and barley. Three distinct conditions caused by gluten sensitivities have been identified: wheat allergy, celiac disease, and non-celiac gluten sensitivity.
Wheat allergy is more common in children than adults, and many children outgrow the condition. Symptoms include hives, itchy throat or eyes, and difficulty breathing. Wheat allergy can be life threatening and requires immediate medical attention—an especially serious consideration for Warfighters in the field.
Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder that affects the small intestine. When a person with celiac disease eats foods containing gluten, his/her immune system attacks the small intestine, impairing the way the body digests food. Symptoms include bloating, gas, diarrhea, abdominal pain, lactose intolerance, and anemia. If not treated, celiac disease can cause neurological disorders, osteoporosis, and other autoimmune disorders such as type 1 diabetes. About three million people in the U.S. have celiac disease.
In non-celiac gluten sensitivity, or NCGS, a person is sensitive to gluten but—as the name suggests—does not have celiac disease. Symptoms include diarrhea or abdominal pain and vague, non-intestinal symptoms such as bone or joint pain, leg numbness, or skin rashes, making diagnosis difficult. About 18 million people in the U.S. have NCGS.
The only way to treat gluten sensitivities is to adhere to a strict gluten-free diet. Things to avoid include:
- Wheat, rye, and barley
- Flours made from wheat: self-rising flour, graham flour, cake flour, pastry flour
- Oats, unless certified gluten-free
- Communion wafers and matzo
- Soy sauce
Even if a product label says it is “wheat free” it might contain rye or barley. FDA has established guidelines for labeling gluten-free foods.
Gluten-free foods can become “contaminated” with gluten in home kitchens, so be sure to use clean tools for preparing and serving gluten-free foods, and designate appliances, such as a toaster, for use with gluten-free products only.
Many people with gluten sensitivities are deficient in calcium, folate, iron, and certain B vitamins. They should have their vitamin and mineral status monitored by a doctor.
Although following a gluten-free diet can be challenging at first, with a little practice it can become second nature. There are many gluten-free products on the market and many bakeries now offer gluten free selections. People who follow the diet typically experience significant improvements in their health and quality of life that make the effort worth the challenges. You can learn more about celiac disease and gluten-free diets from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.
Military Sexual Trauma (MST) is a serious issue. Afterdeployment.org describes MST as “among the most serious violations a person can experience.” Both men and women can experience MST, which can include sexual harassment and/or sexual assault.
Sexual harassment refers to unwelcome and/or threatening verbal or physical behavior of a sexual nature.
Sexual assault is any kind of sexual behavior without consent.
Survivors of MST experience a variety of symptoms ranging from relationship problems, intense emotions, feelings of numbness, memory problems, sleep issues, and more. See this factsheet from Veterans Affairs for more information on symptoms.
MST can impact your mental and physical health not only at the time but even years later. It’s important to know that you can recover from this traumatic experience, but seeking professional help is essential for recovery. If you or someone you know has recently experienced a sexual assault, follow the steps identified in this factsheet. Active-duty Warfighters can get help at the Department of Defense’s Safe Helpline, which provides a wide variety of support for sexual assault, from basic information to their telephone helpline. Veterans who have experienced MST can locate help at their local VA Facility Locator and/or call the VA Information hotline at 1-800-827-1000. To hear about other veterans’ experiences with MST and locate more vet-centric information, check out the VA’s website on MST.
In addition, afterdeployment.org has created some factsheets that provide more information and resources on MST, including one on the facts about sexual assault and harassment, the emotional stages of recovery, and reporting and legal issues. Finally, for information about reporting and what the Department of Defense is doing to help MST, check out their Annual Report on Sexual Assault in the Military (see the 2013 report here).
Your knees are major weight-bearing joints and require some ongoing care to keep them functioning well, regardless of your MOS or sport activities. A new HPRC article on knee injuries provides information on knee-injury prevention. We focused on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) because this injury is quite common in the military and can put a soldier on profile for six months or even more. ACL injuries typically require surgery, so it’s an injury you want to avoid, if possible. Scientists and researchers have discovered some specific information that can be useful to decrease your risk of ACL injuries.
HPRC presents its shortest list to date of still-available Dietary Supplements/Products Containing DMAA! Since our last update in December 2013, 20 more products have been discontinued or reformulated to remove DMAA, and even more have disappeared from Internet retail sources altogether. Currently, we have found only 41 products (out of more than 200 once on the list) that still appear to be in manufacture, in many cases from non-U.S. sources.
Since its April 2013 announcement that DMAA is illegal as a dietary supplement ingredient, FDA has cracked down on manufacturers and suppliers in the U.S. As an example, an FDA News Release last November highlighted the seizure of more than $2 million in products from a single company. For more about DMAA from FDA, read their “DMAA in Dietary Supplements” web page.
If there’s one constant in the military lifestyle it’s change. You could be engaged in a high-intensity ops tempo one day, and then find yourself at a desk job the next day (and vice versa). Similarly, you could be training for a triathlon, and then suddenly recovering from an injury. When your circumstances change, your calorie needs change too.
The Go for Green® plan is based on a Warfighter consuming 2,500 calories per day. Your needs might be different depending on a number of factors such as your age, sex, and level of activity. Go for Green® can help you choose appropriate foods for your calorie needs. But first, find out how many calories you need each day with this handy (downloadable, Excel) calculator from HPRC.
If your needs are greater than 2,500 calories per day—perhaps your job or workout regimen is very physically demanding—eating a few “yellow” foods (especially from the protein, fruit, and starchy food categories) and one or two “red” foods each day is appropriate for you. “Yellow” and “red” foods help boost the calorie content of your meals and restore your body’s carbohydrate and fat stores—essential fuels for Warfighters with high-calorie needs.
If your needs are less than 2,500 calories per day—maybe because you sit at a desk all day or you’re nursing an injury—it’s important to remember that reduced physical activity means reduced calorie needs. Steer clear of “red” foods and keep “yellow” ones to a minimum. Aim for plenty of “green” foods to help you heal and enhance mental and physical performance, and be sure to watch your portions to avoid unwanted weight gain.
And remember, “Green” foods are always a good choice for optimal performance, whatever your circumstances or calorie needs! For more information, visit the Warfighter section of the Go for Green® website and click on the “Personalizing G4G” tab.
The American Psychological Association (APA) wants to know how stressed out Americans are. Every year since 2007, they’ve conducted a yearly “Stress in America” survey in which they analyze trends about stress and its associated symptoms and behaviors across a range of people living in the U.S. In August 2013, they focused on 1,018 teens (ages 13-17).
A recent report of this information about teens and stress showed that the stats are staggering. Teens from the general population (civilian and military) exceed healthy levels of stress, mirroring the trends in the U.S. among adults. Stress affects sleep, exercise, and eating. Teens tend to get 7.4 hours of sleep on school nights, while the recommended amount is around nine or more hours according to the National Sleep Foundation, and between nine and 10 hours according to the National Institutes of Health. One in five teens exercises less than once a week or not at all. And 23% of teens report that they’ve skipped at least one meal in the past month due to stress.
Parents’ deployments are extremely challenging for children and teens, so military teens often have to deal with additional stressors. Consider this:
- When a parent deploys for 19 months or more, kids’ achievement scores are lower than peers’ scores.
- Teachers and counselors say that parental deployment can cause stress at home, often leading to more problems at school (such as incomplete homework, skipping school, or a less-engaged parent).
- Kids’ resiliency can be impacted when a parent is away, and parents/teachers/counselors sometimes feel that helpful resources can be hard to navigate.
What can you and your teens do to combat their stress?
- Watch for signs of stress, and actively use stress-management techniques. You can also find children-centered techniques in these HPRC resources. Recognize that stress-management skills are important to develop whether you are a Warfighter, family member, or civilian.
- Military parents can alert teachers and counselors when a parent is deployed and enlist whatever support is available.
- Parents’ well-being impacts their teens’ well-being. Be sure to take care of yourself by eating right (individually or with your family), exercising, and managing your own stress.
- Bolster resiliency skills, both in times of stress and in times of calm. You can learn how with practical tips in "Building Family Resilience."
A hot trend in nutrition and dieting for some Warfighters is internal cleansing (or “cleansing” for short). Typical cleansing programs promise renewed energy, weight loss, and a fresh start—appealing offers following the rigors of a deployment, a recent change of duty station, or just life in general. Variants of cleansing programs may include “detox” (short for detoxification) diets, dietary supplement products, enemas, or some combination of these.
Although some detox diets emphasize eating lots of fruits and vegetables and drinking plenty of water, many detox diets lack certain vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients, and are dangerously low in calories. It might be difficult for a Warfighter to obtain adequate calories for optimal performance while following a typical detox diet.
Detox supplement products often contain herbs and other plant-based chemicals that have a laxative effect. Long-term use of laxative products can cause changes in the structure of your large intestine (colon) that might have serious health effects. Laxatives can cause dehydration, which impairs performance. In addition, according to the Food and Drug Administration there are concerns about dietary supplement products containing hidden active ingredients that can result in harmful effects.
Detox enemas, often marketed as “colon cleanse” products, cause the contents of the colon to be quickly expelled. Detox enemas contain a variety of substances, some of which can cause allergic reactions or electrolyte imbalances. Since many detox enemas are self-administered, there’s also the risk of tearing the inside of your rectum during the procedure, which can cause septicemia—a type of bacterial infection in the blood.
The guiding principle behind cleanse programs is that environmental and dietary toxins supposedly build up in your body, and you need to get rid of them to be healthy. However, there really isn’t any scientific evidence backing up these claims. Your body is designed to detox itself by getting rid of wastes through urine, feces, and sweat. The best way to take advantage of these built-in detox systems is to drink plenty of water (to produce more urine), get plenty of fiber from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains (to help pass feces), and exercise (to produce sweat)—a proven program to help you perform better and live a healthy life.
Ankle injuries are quite common in the military, and you put yourself at a greater risk for sprains and strains if your ankles are weak. There are some simple tips you can use to keep your ankles healthy, including choosing the proper footwear and maintaining adequate strength in the muscles that control movement of your ankles. Check our new information on ankle injuries.
There’s hemp turning up in yogurt, cereal, milk, and other food products these days. What is hemp, and what are the service policies on the use of these food products? Read the Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS) FAQ to find out. Be sure to check back often as we add answers to other questions and topics in the OPSS section of HPRC’s website.
If you have a question about a particular dietary supplement ingredient or product, and you can’t find the answer on our website, please use our “Ask the Expert” button located on the OPSS home page.
A lot of money-saving challenges have been sprouting up all over the web. These savings challenges may seem like one-size-fits-all easy-savings plans, but can they really help Warfighters save money?
As for most for financial questions, the answer is “it depends.” For some, using one of these challenges can be a fun, easy way to set aside additional savings, but for others it could be a futile attempt ending in frustration. Problems arise when the lofty savings goals touted by such plans just don’t fit your lifestyle.
So what then? Should you give up and do nothing? No! Have a savings goal, but make sure it’s one tailored to your own financial abilities. Start with an understanding of what you can save, and be realistic about your savings goals and how they can fit into your life. If $200 a month is too much, then don’t aim to save $2400 by the end of the year.
If you decide you can save $1400 a year, that averages out to be $26.50 per week, or about the cost of two pizzas. Maybe you can save more some weeks than others. If so, then just keep track of what you’ve saved. As long as you average about $115 per month, you can reach your goal of $1400 by the end of the year. If you start to see that your goal was too ambitious, don’t be afraid to adjust it instead of being disappointed at the end of the year or, worse, giving up.
For more information, visit Military OneSource’s “How to Save” web page.