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Welcome to the HPRC Blog. We've got lots of information here, from quick tips to in-depth posts about detailed human performance optimization topics.

HPRC Fitness Arena: Dietary Supplements

What should I look for in sports drinks?

Sports drinks are popular products for fueling and hydration during workouts. Learn about what your sports drink should contain and how they stack up to nutrient recommendations for performance.

Sports drinks that contain electrolytes and carbohydrates can be essential to performance by replenishing what is lost during activity, mostly through sweat. For activities less than 60 minutes, water is the best drink to replace lost fluids. If your exercise session or mission exceeds 60 minutes, then sports drinks can be helpful. Follow HPRC’s guidelines for maintaining important nutrients such as fluid, carbohydrates, sodium, and potassium during activity to keep well hydrated and on top of your game. Read more here.

What are high-risk supplements?

HPRC Fitness Arena: Dietary Supplements
Some dietary supplement products contain problematic ingredients. Find out which ones might pose a health risk.

High-risk dietary supplements are those that may present serious health risks. Many have been found to contain undeclared drug ingredients, steroids, steroid-like ingredients, and/or stimulants, which can have negative and dangerous side effects. Products most commonly “tainted” in this way are those marketed for bodybuilding, performance enhancement, weight loss, sexual enhancement, and diabetes. Such products may also result in a positive drug test. For more information, read FDA’s Consumer Update “Tainted Products Marketed as Dietary Supplements.” For more information about urinalysis and drug testing, read HPRC’sDietary supplements and drug testing."

In addition, you can visit the OPSS High-Risk Supplement List for information about certain dietary supplements that may pose a health or sport anti-doping risk.

For more Frequently Asked Questions about dietary supplements, visit the Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS) FAQs.

The foundations of Total Force Fitness

Get back to basics with the foundations of Total Force Fitness: health, resilience, and performance optimization. What are they and how do they go together?

Have you heard the terms “resilience” and “Total Force Fitness,” but you’re not quite sure what they mean or where they fit into the health and performance picture? Read on.

Your health is the foundation. The 2010 article "Why Total Force Fitness?" states, “nothing works without health.” Health is not just physical and not just something to worry about when you’re sick. Health is a combination of physical, mental, spiritual, and social well-being and includes practices that promote wellness in addition to those that help you recover from sickness or injury.

Resilience is next. Resilience is the ability to bounce back—or even better, forward—and thrive after experiencing hardship. It is not the ability to completely withstand hardship but rather the ability to come back from it and grow stronger through the experience.

Next is human performance optimization (HPO). Unlike resilience, which typically requires the experience of hardship, HPO involves performing at your best for whatever goal or mission you have (whether that is your PT test, a combat mission, or raising children). It goes beyond simply resisting challenges; it means functioning at a new optimal level to face new challenges.

Health, resilience, and optimal performance are the foundations of Total Force Fitness, which is defined in the “Physical Fitness” chapter of “Total Force Fitness for the 21st Century” (see link above) as a “state in which the individual, family, and organization can sustain optimal well-being and performance under all conditions.” Being totally fit requires a holistic approach—that is, an approach that doesn’t focus on just one aspect alone such as nutrition or physical fitness, but on multiple domains of fitness. It means attending to your mind (including psychological, behavioral, spiritual, and social components) and your body (including physical, nutritional, medical and environmental components). In order to achieve Total Force Fitness, these factors come together to enhance your resilience and/or performance.

This is where HPRC can help you on your quest for total fitness. By visiting each of our domains—Physical Fitness, Environments, Nutrition, Dietary Supplements, Family & Relationships, and Mind Tactics—you can get evidence-based information on a variety of holistic topics to help you achieve and sustain total fitness. But remember that total fitness is a life-long process that will ebb and flow. And it isn’t just about you; your loved ones are an important piece of the picture, too.

To learn more, check out HPRC’s "What is 'Total Force Fitness'?" and for in-depth information, visit the Total Force Fitness Articles section of HPRC’s website.

The dirt on diatomaceous earth

Diatomaceous earth is promoted as a “cure-all,” but is there any truth behind the claims?

Diatomaceous earth (DE) is a powder composed of fossilized algae called “diatoms.” Diatoms are single-celled organisms found in bodies of water, and DE is used commonly for various reasons: 1) a natural insecticide; 2) an anti-caking agent; and 3) a clarifier for wine and beer. However, some people add food grade DE to their food and beverages because DE is a rich source of silicon dioxide. Silicon is a chemical element that occurs naturally as silicon dioxide in many foods, such as whole grains and vegetables.

Proponents of DE suggest that the high silicon dioxide content helps with weight loss, detoxification/cleansing, energy levels, joint pain, teeth and gums, cholesterol and blood pressure, and food absorption. Consumers and some retailers of DE supplements also claim that its abrasive (scratchy/rough) and absorptive properties improve digestive health by ridding the intestines of bacteria and parasites as well as regulating bowel movements.

There is not enough research to support these claims, and the biological role of silicon in humans is uncertain, so there is no recommended intake or DRI (Dietary Reference Intake). According to Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, silicon is safe to consume in amounts commonly found in foods, but insufficient scientific evidence is available for its effectiveness and safety as a dietary supplement.

For more answers to common questions we’ve received about dietary supplements, please visit our Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS) FAQs.

Redotex for weight loss?

Is the weight-loss product Redotex legal?

Redotex is a drug manufactured in Mexico and being sold in the U.S. as a weight-loss product. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) it is a misbranded drug and is not legal to sell as either a drug or a dietary supplement. It is not permitted for use by DoD personnel or civilians.

According to the FDA Import Alert, “it appears to be a new drug without an approved New Drug Application…” In addition, it contains a combination of thyroid, diuretic, stimulant, and tranquilizer drugs that may cause serious and potentially fatal adverse reactions. In addition to posing a health hazard, the product contains a DEA Controlled Substance that will cause a positive drug test. It is very important to read product labels, and if the label is not in English or contains any of the drug ingredients listed in the FDA Alert, steer clear, as it is an illegal product.

For more answers to questions we’ve received about weight-loss dietary supplements, please visit our Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS) FAQs.

FDA warns about BMPEA

What is BMPEA and why has FDA issued a warning about it?

BMPEA is an unapproved amphetamine-like substance that has been appearing in some dietary supplement products. BMPEA (also known as β-methylphenylethylamine, R-beta methylphenylethylamine, beta-methylphenethylamine, and others) was first made in the 1930s as a possible replacement to amphetamine (a central nervous system stimulant), although it never became a drug because human studies on safety were not performed.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tested 21 supplement products with the ingredient Acacia rigidula listed on the label and found that 9 of the 21 products were found to contain BMPEA, which is not derived from the plant Acacia rigidula. Some dietary supplement products actually list BMPEA on their labels. FDA recently issued a warning stating, “…BMPEA does not meet the statutory definition of a dietary ingredient.” Therefore, dietary supplement products with BMPEA are misbranded and cannot be sold as dietary supplements.

The World Anti-Doping Agency has banned BMPEA. For more answers to questions we’ve received about ingredients in dietary supplements, please visit our Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS) FAQs.

Deadly DNP in supplements

You may have read about deaths associated with weight-loss supplements containing DNP. What is it? Is it really all that dangerous?

DNP stands for “2,4-dinitrophenol,” an industrial chemical used in diet pills in the early 20th century that is now resurfacing. Over the past several years, deaths associated with DNP in weight-loss products have been reported.

A century ago DNP was recognized as dangerous and often deadly. In fact, the first Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act in 1938 made it illegal in oral products, describing it as “extremely dangerous and not fit for human consumption.” However, it is still made for pesticides and other industrial uses.

Virtually anyone can purchase the chemical and put it into a product. It is currently being marketed on the Internet as a weight-loss product. It takes very little for a lethal oral dose (as low as 4.3 mg/kg bodyweight, or about 350mg for a 180 lb person), and even skin or respiratory exposure can be toxic. DNP leads to dehydration from sweating, severely high body temperature, and cell poisoning, resulting in organ failure. There is no specific antidote for DNP poisoning, and treatment is often unsuccessful.

If you see “DNP” or “dinitrophenol” on a product label, steer clear! DNP supplements are marketed almost exclusively online, so be careful what you buy.

For more answers to common questions we’ve received about dietary supplements, please visit our Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS) FAQs.

Can you spice up your weight loss?

Capsaicin gives certain foods their spiciness. It’s also being sold as a dietary supplement. But will it help you lose weight? Read more in the latest OPSS FAQ.

If you’ve ever eaten something spicy and felt a burning sensation on your tongue, then you’ve eaten capsaicin. Capsaicin is the substance found in chili peppers such as jalapeños, serranos, and habaneros that gives them their spiciness. Although humans have been eating peppers for thousands of years, capsaicin has only recently come into the supplement spotlight. As an isolated ingredient, it is usually sold as capsules labeled “cayenne pepper” or “capsicum” after the family of peppers that naturally contain capsaicin.

Capsaicin supplements are marketed to aid with weight loss in three ways: increase energy use, burn fat, and decrease appetite. Some scientific evidence supports these statements, but the results of most studies were inconsistent, short-lived, and didn’t always result in weight loss. Long-term effects of taking capsaicin supplements, especially at high doses, are still unknown, so their safety over time needs further investigation.

Although capsaicin is considered safe to consume in food, capsaicin supplements can cause gastrointestinal issues (gas, stomach pain, and diarrhea) for some people. They also can interact with certain medications and other herbal supplements, so you should consult a healthcare provider before taking it. Capsaicin supplements also may not be safe if you are allergic to peppers or if you‘re pregnant or lactating.

Visit Operation Supplement Safety for more OPSS FAQs about weight loss.

What is bitter orange?

Bitter orange, synephrine, and octopamine are three ingredients I’ve seen a lot on Supplement Facts panels and labels. What are they?

Bitter orange is an extract from the immature green fruit of the Citrus aurantium plant, also known as Seville orange. It is sometimes used in small amounts in food as a flavorant and often used in weight-loss supplements. The terms “bitter orange,” “bitter orange extract,” or “Citrus aurantium” are often used interchangeably with the ingredient name “synephrine,” but bitter orange (the extract from Citrus aurantium fruit) is actually a complex mixture of many compounds, including synephrine and octopamine. Although both synephrine and octopamine occur naturally in the Citrus aurantium plant, they also can be made in a laboratory.

Many safety concerns have been raised with regard to synephrine and octopamine, which are both stimulants. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) bans both of them, but the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) bans only octopamine. Bitter orange is frequently used in "ephedra-free" products since 2004, when the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned ephedra for its association with serious adverse cardiovascular effects. Combinations of stimulants—such as bitter orange and caffeine, commonly found together in weight-loss and bodybuilding products—can cause hypertension and increase heart rate in otherwise healthy adults. A major concern with products that list bitter orange (or synephrine, or octopamine) on the label is that the amount of stimulants in the product is sometimes very difficult—if not impossible—to determine. Service members should exercise extreme caution when considering whether to use supplements containing bitter orange.

No conclusive, peer-reviewed, scientific evidence clearly establishes that bitter orange is any safer than ephedra. For more information on bitter orange and ephedra, read the monographs in HPRC’s Dietary Supplement Classification System series.

For more answers to common questions we’ve received about dietary supplements, please visit our Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS) FAQs.

Lucky number 7? Omega-7s and your health

Your body makes omega-7 fatty acids, but will getting more from supplements be beneficial? Check out the new OPSS FAQ.

What are omega-7 fatty acids? And do omega-7 supplements convey the health benefits advertised?

Omega-7 fatty acids are a type of unsaturated fat. Omega-7s are considered non-essential fatty acids, which means your body can make enough omega-7s to function properly. In other words, you don’t need to get them from foods or supplements.

One of the most common forms of omega-7s, which is also used in supplements, is palmitoleic acid (not to be confused with palmitic acid, which is a saturated fat). Omega-7 supplements are marketed for health benefits such as heart and liver health, improved cholesterol levels, weight loss, glucose (blood sugar) metabolism, and immune support. Limited research has shown some benefits from palmitoleic acid supplementation, but most of the research has been done on animals and only for short test periods (less than four weeks). As a result, no recommended dose or source of palmitoleic acid exists, and there is not enough evidence to suggest that omega-7 supplements can improve heart health or health in general.

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