Welcome to the HPRC Blog. We've got lots of information here, from quick tips to in-depth posts about detailed human performance optimization topics.
HPRC Fitness Arena: Environment
Training on the treadmill and “overground” running are not the same. If you’ve experienced treadmill running and find yourself more tired afterwards than you would on an outdoor run, you’re not alone. It seems athletes actually run slower on a treadmill than their normal pace outside, yet they perceive treadmill running as being more exhausting. In other words, even though it feels more difficult, treadmill running is usually less intense and less physically challenging than running outdoors.
If you’re training for an outdoor race, ideally you should run most of your training miles outside. However, running indoors can be helpful if you’re recovering from an injury since running on a treadmill is easier on your joints than running outside on concrete or even grass. When you want or need to run indoors on a treadmill, set the incline at 1–2% to increase your exertion level to more closely replicate your outdoor runs.
If you decide to run outside during a cold spell, take a look at our article with tips for staying safe in cold weather and the many resources on cold environments where you can find more ways to keep warm and hydrated even in frigid weather. Remember: Whether you stay in or venture out, any exercise is better than none!
Exposure to a natural green environment can help reduce your stress levels and improve your health and well-being. So, feeling blue? Go green! Some of nature’s restorative benefits include improved positive mood, energy, and vitality; decreased anxiety, depressive thoughts, perceived stress, and hostility; as well as improved recovery times after surgery and less need for pain meds.
Exposure to nature can also reduce your heart rate, blood pressure, blood sugar, and stress hormones, as well as improve your sleep, immune function, and brain activity. Interestingly, people who live in neighborhoods where streets have more trees report feeling healthier, with fewer symptoms of poor health such as heart attack, stroke, obesity, and diabetes. Neighborhood greenness has also been tied to longer life expectancy.
Depending on where you live, finding a natural environment can be tricky. You can find state and national parks online or look for local parks and gardens in your area. Even walking along a neighborhood street with lots of trees, spending more time viewing nature (through a window), or having indoor plants within view can make you feel better. You may want to experience nature on your own, with a buddy, or with a group of fellow service members or veterans. For group outdoor recreational activities, check out the Sierra Club Outdoors program (or, specifically, their Military Outdoors program). So if you’re feeling stressed, down, or not your usual self, get outside and go green!
Noise-related hearing loss is a tactical risk for individual warriors and unit effectiveness. Being able to hear well is crucial for effective communication and—perhaps more important—for survival. While the military has done extensive research and established standards regarding noise and noise exposure, there are a few things you can do to help minimize your risk of this occupational hazard.
- Wear hearing protectors when firing weapons or traveling in noisy vehicles or aircraft.
- Make sure that earplugs such combat arms earplugs (CAE) fit properly to protect your hearing but still communicate effectively.
- Replace lost or damaged hearing protectors as soon as possible.
- Limit exposure to “annoying noise” during normal daily activities. Trying to ignore noise can increase your heart rate and blood pressure and cause sleep problems and other negative health effects.
- Report any signs of hearing loss as soon as possible.
Hearing loss, including tinnitus, has become an "invisible" injury and an accepted outcome of military service. Blast injuries from improvised explosive devices (IEDs), RPGs, and mortar rounds are the largest cause of hearing loss for forces in Iraq. Compensation payments for hearing loss as the primary disability increased 319% between 2001 and 2006. While there is currently no cure for tinnitus, there are treatments available.
The DoD Hearing Center of Excellence is committed to preventing, treating, and rehabilitating hearing loss and auditory injury for service members and veterans. HCE offers evidence-based clinical care in collaboration with other organizations and Centers of Excellence to improve quality of life for hearing-impaired service members and raise awareness about noise pollution and occupational safety.
Noise pollution may be an inevitable part of serving in the military, but it doesn’t have to leave you with a permanent reminder. Do what you can to help hold on to your hearing.
Sitting in front of a computer for hours can make your eyes tired, and your visual performance can suffer. To help with potential negative effects, create an environment that has equal brightness everywhere around your computer screen. Try these tips to help:
- Reduce intense fluorescent lights.
- Turn on some lights if you usually look at computer screens in the dark.
- Dim excess light coming through windows with blinds, tinting, or window covers.
- Avoid glare on your computer screen.
- Take microbreaks to look at distant objects.
If you’re in an office environment, if possible, turn off overhead lights and have a table lamp for softer light. If you can’t control the lighting in your environment, there are screens you can place on top of your computer screen to reduce glare. In a previous article, we highlighted how 30-second microbreaks every 20 minutes can ease physical discomfort and improve mental performance when working in front of a computer. Similar breaks also help reduce eye strain. Experts suggest looking at a distant object at least twice every hour to help prevent visual fatigue. So if you take a break every 20 minutes for brief stretching, make sure it also includes looking at a distant object to help both your eyes and body.
Exercising outside on hot summer days when the heat and humidity seem unbearable may be more harmful than helpful. Pollutants in the air (such as carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and ozone) can inflame your respiratory system more than usual, because on hot days you’re more likely to breathe faster and deeper and through your mouth (bypassing your nose’s natural filtration system).
However, the risks associated with not exercising at all are far greater than the risks of exercising outdoors. It may just take a little more planning on days and in conditions when pollution is bad. When planning outdoor exercise activities, follow these tips to limit your exposure to pollutants.
- Avoid exercising in areas of heavy traffic, such as along highways and during rush hour.
- During summer, exercise earlier in the morning, when ozone levels and temperatures are not as high.
- Check the domestic or international air-quality ratings to determine if it’s safe to exercise outside. Limit your time outside on Code Red and Code Orange days. Environmental conditions on these days are not healthy, especially for children, the elderly, and people with existing respiratory conditions.
- Exercise indoors when the air quality indicates high ozone and particulate levels.
- Before any demanding physical activity, limit your carbon monoxide exposure by avoiding smoky areas and long car rides in congested traffic.
Training for flight in dynamic and high-acceleration aircraft requires both good cardiovascular health and anaerobic capabilities; part of well-rounded fitness! Have you heard the myth that all fighter pilots are short, stocky, and need high blood pressure? Not true, you too can develop good G-tolerance! Regular cardiovascular conditioning paired with strength-training programs will properly prepare you for flight under Gs. A strong lower body helps push blood upwards where you need it, in your heart and brain. Being aerobically fit gives you the endurance to keep pushing and not fatigue as quickly while doing the Anti-G Straining Maneuver (AGSM). AGSM is a two-component maneuver pilots perform under g-loads that involves breathing and muscle contractions to increase your blood pressure and maintain blood flow to your brain. Read more here.
Skin cancer is a major public health issue, but with proper precautions you can decrease your risk considerably. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the most important risk factor for both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. Exposure to these rays also can result in deeper facial wrinkles, skin discoloration, burn, and skin aging.
Athletes who practice outdoor sports are especially at risk for skin cancer. Sweating increases the skin’s sensitivity to the sun’s rays, magnifying the risk of sunburn and skin damage.
Remember: The weather does not have to be sunny and hot for you to get sun damage! Whether you’re training for the PRT, patrolling, road marching, or participating in a summer league softball game, follow these tips to stay safe during all outdoor activities. [[Christy – Use the text to this point for the home page BLUF, then add the words “Read more...” and hyperlink to full article, with all text, above and below.]]
- Avoid burning
- As little as a single sunburn can increase your risk for developing skin cancer. Getting burned 5 or more times doubles the risk over your lifetime.
- Apply sunscreen
- Use water-resistant, broad-spectrum (UVA/UVB) sunscreen, with SPF 15 or higher, every day. Apply it 15–30 minutes before you’re exposed to the sun to give it time to absorb. Also, reapply sunscreen after swimming, sweating, or toweling off. Be sure to check out the FDA regulations regarding sunscreens and their effectiveness.
- Seek shade
- Whenever possible, stay in the shade under a tree or tent. Especially try to avoid sun exposure during midday (11 a.m. to 3 p.m.), when the rays are strongest.
- Cover up
- Wear protective clothing—including hats, long-sleeved shirts, and pants—when you go outdoors. Keep in mind, though, that protection decreases when clothes are wet.
- Use extra caution…
- …near water, snow, and sand. Ultraviolet rays can reflect off these and other surfaces, increasing your chance of sun exposure and skin damage.
- Wear sunglasses
- Protect your eyes when you work, drive, participate in sports, take a walk, or run an errand. Solar ultraviolet B radiation can increased your risk of cataracts and cancer of the skin around eyes without proper cover.
Hypoxia, or insufficient oxygen supply to the body, is a stress factor associated with high altitude in aviation. It’s caused by low oxygen levels and decreases in partial pressure. Flight above 10,000 feet is dangerous and restricted without supplemental oxygen, and even the best oxygen and pressurization systems fail sometimes. Above 10,000 feet, an aviator’s “Time of Useful Consciousness” (TUC) begins; this means that you’re going to start having problems focusing, reacting, and making decisions. At 15,000 feet your TUC is around 30 minutes, at which point you’re more likely to be unconscious than not. At 22,000 feet it’s only 5–10 minutes, and by 28,000 feet it can be as fast as 3 minutes! Look out for these signs (what you can see in somebody else) and symptoms (what you can notice in your own body):
- Cyanosis (bluing of the fingertips or lips)
- Decreased reaction time
- Impaired judgment
- Unexplained happiness/euphoria
- Visual impairment
- Lightheaded or dizzy sensation
- Tingling in fingers and toes
If you notice any of these signs or symptoms, remember to find the emergency oxygen, use it, and land safely!
Decompression sickness (DCS), also known as “the bends,” is well known to occur in divers. However, it also can occur in aviation, especially when there is a sudden or unexpected loss of cabin pressure above 18,000 feet. DCS occurs when the dissolved gases inside the body come out of solution to form bubbles. As these bubbles move throughout the body, problems occur. There are different types of DCS, but here are some common symptoms to be aware of:
- Localized or deep pain in the large joints
- Itching or the sensation of insects crawling on your skin
- Memory loss
- Visual abnormalities
- Loss of balance or vertigo
- Dry, persistent cough
If you suspect DCS, first land safely as soon as you can. Treatment may involve breathing oxygen or time in a hyperbaric chamber. If you ever experience these symptoms after a loss of pressurization above 18,000 feet, contact your doctor or emergency room as soon as possible and report your recent exposure.
Have you heard the terms “resilience” and “Total Force Fitness,” but you’re not quite sure what they mean or where they fit into the health and performance picture? Read on.
Your health is the foundation. The 2010 article "Why Total Force Fitness?" states, “nothing works without health.” Health is not just physical and not just something to worry about when you’re sick. Health is a combination of physical, mental, spiritual, and social well-being and includes practices that promote wellness in addition to those that help you recover from sickness or injury.
Resilience is next. Resilience is the ability to bounce back—or even better, forward—and thrive after experiencing hardship. It is not the ability to completely withstand hardship but rather the ability to come back from it and grow stronger through the experience.
Next is human performance optimization (HPO). Unlike resilience, which typically requires the experience of hardship, HPO involves performing at your best for whatever goal or mission you have (whether that is your PT test, a combat mission, or raising children). It goes beyond simply resisting challenges; it means functioning at a new optimal level to face new challenges.
Health, resilience, and optimal performance are the foundations of Total Force Fitness, which is defined in the “Physical Fitness” chapter of “Total Force Fitness for the 21st Century” (see link above) as a “state in which the individual, family, and organization can sustain optimal well-being and performance under all conditions.” Being totally fit requires a holistic approach—that is, an approach that doesn’t focus on just one aspect alone such as nutrition or physical fitness, but on multiple domains of fitness. It means attending to your mind (including psychological, behavioral, spiritual, and social components) and your body (including physical, nutritional, medical and environmental components). In order to achieve Total Force Fitness, these factors come together to enhance your resilience and/or performance.
This is where HPRC can help you on your quest for total fitness. By visiting each of our domains—Physical Fitness, Environments, Nutrition, Dietary Supplements, Family & Relationships, and Mind Tactics—you can get evidence-based information on a variety of holistic topics to help you achieve and sustain total fitness. But remember that total fitness is a life-long process that will ebb and flow. And it isn’t just about you; your loved ones are an important piece of the picture, too.