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HPRC Fitness Arena: Nutrition
A key step toward achieving and maintaining a healthy weight is learning to accurately gauge how much you’re eating. In other words, how big are your portions? The most accurate way to gauge your portions is to measure or weigh your food, but who wants to take measuring cups and a scale to the chow hall? A more practical way to gauge your portion sizes is to “eyeball” them—that is, to visually compare your food portions to a familiar frame of reference. Of course, you might have larger or smaller hands, but generally speaking your hand size equates to your body size and, as a result, your portion needs. This infographic from HPRC uses your hand as your guide—a “handy” way to keep portion sizes in check, which can mean a leaner, healthier, better-performing you.
Iodine is an essential nutrient. It plays a key role in how well your thyroid functions and is particularly important during pregnancy and breastfeeding for the development of your baby’s brain. The Recommended Dietary Allowance for iodine for most adults is 150 micrograms (mcg). But women who are pregnant or breastfeeding need slightly more: 220 mcg and 290 mcg daily, respectively.
Iodine is present in some foods such as fish, dairy products, fruits, vegetables, and grains. Iodine is also added to table salt—referred to as “iodized salt.” Although most Americans eat too much salt, much of it comes from processed foods and typically isn’t iodized. Consequently, many women who are pregnant are iodine-deficient. If you’re pregnant or breastfeeding, the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend taking a prenatal vitamin to ensure you’re getting enough of all your vitamins and minerals, including iodine. In addition, if you’re vegan or you don’t eat dairy products or fish, talk to your doctor about your iodine status.
Read all prenatal dietary supplement labels carefully—whether they’re prescription or over-the-counter—so you can be certain your prenatal vitamin contains sufficient iodine to meet your needs during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Also, be sure to look for one that is third-party certified. For more information about iodine, read this fact sheet from the National Institutes of Health’s Office of Dietary Supplements.
Have you heard of Total Force Fitness, but you aren’t sure what it is? It’s a framework for building and maintaining health, readiness, and performance in the Department of Defense. It views health, wellness, and resilience as a holistic concept that recognizes “total fitness” as a “state in which the individual, family and organization can sustain optimal well-being and performance under all conditions”—a connection between mind, body, spirit, and family/social relationships. Total fitness shifts the perspective from treatment to wellness and focuses on prevention and strengths.
The Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury created a slide presentation for units and groups on Total Force Fitness: A Brief Overview that describes what TFF is, its core components, and each of its eight “domains” (behavioral, social, physical, environmental, medical and dental, spiritual, nutritional, and psychological). For more in-depth reading, check out the original Military Medicine Supplement that started it all, including a scholarly chapter for each domain.
Red yeast rice is a product of rice fermented with Monascus purpureus yeast. It has been used as food and/or medicine for many centuries in parts of Asia, but it is also available as a dietary supplement. It contains a substance known as monacolin K, a naturally-occurring substance that works like lovastatin, a type of statin. Statins are drugs prescribed to reduce blood cholesterol by limiting the amount of cholesterol produced by the liver. Red yeast rice that contains large amounts of monacolin K can lower blood cholesterol levels, but the amount of monacolin K in red yeast rice ranges from very high to none at all.
The Food and Drug Administration has warned consumers that if a red yeast rice dietary supplement product contains monacolin K, it is considered an unauthorized drug and taking it can carry the same risks—some serious—as the drug lovastatin. As the consumer, you really have no way to know whether a red yeast rice product does or does not contain monacolin K, and therefore no way of knowing if the product is safe, effective, or legal. In addition, red yeast rice (as either a food or dietary supplement) can be contaminated with a form of fungus that can cause kidney failure. You can learn more about the safety and effectiveness of red yeast rice from this National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine web page.
Olive oil is known for its flavor, versatility, and health-promoting qualities. Nutrition experts think olive oil may be partly responsible for the many health benefits associated with the “Mediterranean diet,” an eating pattern that emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, beans, nuts, and “healthy” fats. Olive oil is a monounsaturated fat—one of the healthy fats. It contains vitamins A, E, and K, plus many other beneficial compounds that might reduce your risk of heart disease.
Heating olive oil or holding it at high temperatures for long periods of time can reduce its beneficial qualities. If you use olive oil for deep-frying, it should be discarded after one or two uses.
Interestingly, olives can “pick up” airborne toxins present in smoke from fires, car exhaust, and other pollutants. So it might be a good idea to choose olive oils produced from olives grown in areas where air quality is good most of the growing season. This is likely true for all edible oils.
Olive oil can be used in countless ways: Drizzle on pasta or bread, brush lightly on meats or fish, coat vegetables for roasting, or use nearly any way that butter or other fats can be used—even baking! Of course, as with all fats, be sure to use olive oil in moderation to avoid gaining weight.
Wheat products such as bread and pasta are mainstays of our diets. However, some people are sensitive to gluten, a blend of two proteins found in wheat and other grains such as rye and barley. Three distinct conditions caused by gluten sensitivities have been identified: wheat allergy, celiac disease, and non-celiac gluten sensitivity.
Wheat allergy is more common in children than adults, and many children outgrow the condition. Symptoms include hives, itchy throat or eyes, and difficulty breathing. Wheat allergy can be life threatening and requires immediate medical attention—an especially serious consideration for Warfighters in the field.
Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder that affects the small intestine. When a person with celiac disease eats foods containing gluten, his/her immune system attacks the small intestine, impairing the way the body digests food. Symptoms include bloating, gas, diarrhea, abdominal pain, lactose intolerance, and anemia. If not treated, celiac disease can cause neurological disorders, osteoporosis, and other autoimmune disorders such as type 1 diabetes. About three million people in the U.S. have celiac disease.
In non-celiac gluten sensitivity, or NCGS, a person is sensitive to gluten but—as the name suggests—does not have celiac disease. Symptoms include diarrhea or abdominal pain and vague, non-intestinal symptoms such as bone or joint pain, leg numbness, or skin rashes, making diagnosis difficult. About 18 million people in the U.S. have NCGS.
The only way to treat gluten sensitivities is to adhere to a strict gluten-free diet. Things to avoid include:
- Wheat, rye, and barley
- Flours made from wheat: self-rising flour, graham flour, cake flour, pastry flour
- Oats, unless certified gluten-free
- Communion wafers and matzo
- Soy sauce
Even if a product label says it is “wheat free” it might contain rye or barley. FDA has established guidelines for labeling gluten-free foods.
Gluten-free foods can become “contaminated” with gluten in home kitchens, so be sure to use clean tools for preparing and serving gluten-free foods, and designate appliances, such as a toaster, for use with gluten-free products only.
Many people with gluten sensitivities are deficient in calcium, folate, iron, and certain B vitamins. They should have their vitamin and mineral status monitored by a doctor.
Although following a gluten-free diet can be challenging at first, with a little practice it can become second nature. There are many gluten-free products on the market and many bakeries now offer gluten free selections. People who follow the diet typically experience significant improvements in their health and quality of life that make the effort worth the challenges. You can learn more about celiac disease and gluten-free diets from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.
If there’s one constant in the military lifestyle it’s change. You could be engaged in a high-intensity ops tempo one day, and then find yourself at a desk job the next day (and vice versa). Similarly, you could be training for a triathlon, and then suddenly recovering from an injury. When your circumstances change, your calorie needs change too.
The Go for Green® plan is based on a Warfighter consuming 2,500 calories per day. Your needs might be different depending on a number of factors such as your age, sex, and level of activity. Go for Green® can help you choose appropriate foods for your calorie needs. But first, find out how many calories you need each day with this handy (downloadable, Excel) calculator from HPRC.
If your needs are greater than 2,500 calories per day—perhaps your job or workout regimen is very physically demanding—eating a few “yellow” foods (especially from the protein, fruit, and starchy food categories) and one or two “red” foods each day is appropriate for you. “Yellow” and “red” foods help boost the calorie content of your meals and restore your body’s carbohydrate and fat stores—essential fuels for Warfighters with high-calorie needs.
If your needs are less than 2,500 calories per day—maybe because you sit at a desk all day or you’re nursing an injury—it’s important to remember that reduced physical activity means reduced calorie needs. Steer clear of “red” foods and keep “yellow” ones to a minimum. Aim for plenty of “green” foods to help you heal and enhance mental and physical performance, and be sure to watch your portions to avoid unwanted weight gain.
And remember, “Green” foods are always a good choice for optimal performance, whatever your circumstances or calorie needs! For more information, visit the Warfighter section of the Go for Green® website and click on the “Personalizing G4G” tab.
A hot trend in nutrition and dieting for some Warfighters is internal cleansing (or “cleansing” for short). Typical cleansing programs promise renewed energy, weight loss, and a fresh start—appealing offers following the rigors of a deployment, a recent change of duty station, or just life in general. Variants of cleansing programs may include “detox” (short for detoxification) diets, dietary supplement products, enemas, or some combination of these.
Although some detox diets emphasize eating lots of fruits and vegetables and drinking plenty of water, many detox diets lack certain vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients, and are dangerously low in calories. It might be difficult for a Warfighter to obtain adequate calories for optimal performance while following a typical detox diet.
Detox supplement products often contain herbs and other plant-based chemicals that have a laxative effect. Long-term use of laxative products can cause changes in the structure of your large intestine (colon) that might have serious health effects. Laxatives can cause dehydration, which impairs performance. In addition, according to the Food and Drug Administration there are concerns about dietary supplement products containing hidden active ingredients that can result in harmful effects.
Detox enemas, often marketed as “colon cleanse” products, cause the contents of the colon to be quickly expelled. Detox enemas contain a variety of substances, some of which can cause allergic reactions or electrolyte imbalances. Since many detox enemas are self-administered, there’s also the risk of tearing the inside of your rectum during the procedure, which can cause septicemia—a type of bacterial infection in the blood.
The guiding principle behind cleanse programs is that environmental and dietary toxins supposedly build up in your body, and you need to get rid of them to be healthy. However, there really isn’t any scientific evidence backing up these claims. Your body is designed to detox itself by getting rid of wastes through urine, feces, and sweat. The best way to take advantage of these built-in detox systems is to drink plenty of water (to produce more urine), get plenty of fiber from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains (to help pass feces), and exercise (to produce sweat)—a proven program to help you perform better and live a healthy life.
Have you heard about Go for Green®?
Go for Green® is a DoD-wide, joint-service food-identification program. It’s designed to help you easily identify the nutritional value of foods when you’re standing in line at the dining facility (DFAC) deciding what to eat.
Foods in DFACs are color-coded Green, Yellow, or Red to help you choose foods for optimal performance. When using Go for Green® in the DFAC, look for these symbols to identify “Green,” “Yellow,” or “Red” foods.
What do the colors mean?
Go: High-Performance Food
“Green” foods can and should be eaten everyday. These foods score high in nutrient density (the ratio of nutrients to calories in a food) and help you perform best. Most “Green” foods can be eaten without having to worry much about portion size.
Caution: Eat occasionally
“Yellow” foods are still healthy in small amounts but should be eaten less often than “Green” foods. How much and how often depends on your health and performance goals. Try to eat “Yellow” foods just some of the time.
Limit: Eat rarely
“Red” foods are meant to be treats eaten just once in a while. They have little nutritional quality but are often an enjoyable part of eating. Most people can have a few “Red” foods each week and still meet health and performance goals. Try to limit how much and how often you eat “Red” foods, and balance them with plenty of “Green” foods.
Although the Go for Green® program is geared toward use in the DFAC, it translates well to just about any setting—home, fast-food restaurants, even when eating MREs. Eating the Go for Green® way can promote a healthier, better-performing you. For more information, visit the Go for Green® website. Download the Go for Green® Guide for a handy reference.
Need help deciding how much to eat? Look for future posts about how to personalize Go for Green® based on your individual calorie and performance needs.
Carbohydrates provide our bodies with energy. “Good” carbohydrates—usually the complex carbohydrates such as vegetables, fruits, and whole grains—have more fiber. They also contain vitamins and minerals. “Bad carbs” include refined carbohydrates—foods made with white flour—and processed foods with added sugars. To find out more about eating the good carbs, read the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention information on carbohydrates.