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HPRC Fitness Arena: Nutrition
HPRC has written several articles about energy drinks, their ingredients, and their potential harmful effects, especially for adolescents. They continue to be the topic of news articles, with another recent death of a teen who apparently consumed several energy drinks while on vacation and then died from cardiac arrest. The American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) urges the public to use caution when consuming energy drinks and lists many potential harmful reactions. Read more on this AAPCC web page, including statistics on reports of “exposures” to energy drinks.
HPRC has an Infosheet on energy drinks, highlighting the ingredients you may find on labels,and their potential stimulant effects. Be aware of the potential dangers, especially for children and teens, as outlined by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
A key step toward achieving and maintaining a healthy weight is learning to accurately gauge how much you’re eating. In other words, how big are your portions? The most accurate way to gauge your portions is to measure or weigh your food, but who wants to take measuring cups and a scale to the chow hall? A more practical way to gauge your portion sizes is to “eyeball” them—that is, to visually compare your food portions to a familiar frame of reference. Of course, you might have larger or smaller hands, but generally speaking your hand size equates to your body size and, as a result, your portion needs. This infographic from HPRC uses your hand as your guide—a “handy” way to keep portion sizes in check, which can mean a leaner, healthier, better-performing you.
If you’re avoiding grains due to a particular diet plan, or if you think you have to exclude grains due to gluten sensitivities, you may want to think again. HPRC has put together a table of grains (with and without gluten) and their basic nutrients to point out how nutritious grains can be. Even for those who are gluten-free or sensitive to gluten, the table shows there are plenty of healthy, gluten-free options to incorporate into your diet.
As the table indicates, whole grains are very nutrient dense: They contain fiber, vitamins such as niacin and folate (and other B vitamins), minerals such as calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, manganese, zinc, and selenium, as well as protein and branched-chain amino acids.
A diet rich in whole grains has been associated with lower risk of Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Paleo diet followers, as well as those who are following a gluten-free diet, need not eliminate whole grains from their diet. The benefits are vast, with many choices for a varied diet. For more information about whole grains, see the ChooseMyPlate.gov resource, “Why is it important to eat grains, especially whole grains?”
Iodine is an essential nutrient. It plays a key role in how well your thyroid functions and is particularly important during pregnancy and breastfeeding for the development of your baby’s brain. The Recommended Dietary Allowance for iodine for most adults is 150 micrograms (mcg). But women who are pregnant or breastfeeding need slightly more: 220 mcg and 290 mcg daily, respectively.
Iodine is present in some foods such as fish, dairy products, fruits, vegetables, and grains. Iodine is also added to table salt—referred to as “iodized salt.” Although most Americans eat too much salt, much of it comes from processed foods and typically isn’t iodized. Consequently, many women who are pregnant are iodine-deficient. If you’re pregnant or breastfeeding, the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend taking a prenatal vitamin to ensure you’re getting enough of all your vitamins and minerals, including iodine. In addition, if you’re vegan or you don’t eat dairy products or fish, talk to your doctor about your iodine status.
Read all prenatal dietary supplement labels carefully—whether they’re prescription or over-the-counter—so you can be certain your prenatal vitamin contains sufficient iodine to meet your needs during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Also, be sure to look for one that is third-party certified. For more information about iodine, read this fact sheet from the National Institutes of Health’s Office of Dietary Supplements.
We’ve said it before: The Nutrition Facts label on a food package can be a Warfighter’s best friend. But it might be getting a facelift, so to speak, to reflect the latest scientific information, courtesy of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The overall “look” of the label will be almost the same, but certain parts will change or be enhanced. Here are some of the proposed changes:
- Serving size: Updated to reflect the way people eat and drink today
- Calories and Servings: Shown in larger type
- Daily Values (DVs): Updated for various nutrients, such as sodium, dietary fiber, and vitamin D
- % DVs: Listed first because it’s easier to read left-to-right
- Added sugars will be shown on a new line.
- DVs for vitamin D and potassium will be included.
- Calories from fat: Going away because according on research, the type of fat is more important than amount. However “Saturated Fat” and “Trans Fat” will remain on the label.
Take a look at the old and new versions side-by-side and then visit HPRC’s Facebook page to tell us what you think of the proposed changes! FDA is seeking comments on the proposed changes, and the closing date has been extended until August 1, 2014, so this is your opportunity to be heard.
Today is Memorial Day. Memorial Day began as “Decoration Day” after the Civil War. In 1882, Decoration Day became widely known as Memorial Day, and after WWII it became a day to remember all our fallen heroes, not just those from the Civil War. In 1967, Congress passed the law making it an official holiday to be celebrated on May 30, subsequently changed to the last Monday of May. We at HPRC extend our greatest appreciation to those who have perished for our nation and offer our sincere sympathy for the families left behind. There are many ways people choose to remember those who gave their lives as a supreme sacrifice to our country and its ideals. HPRC is dedicated to providing our Warfighters and their families the information they need to build resilience to prevent injury and illness and carry out their missions as safely and effectively as possible. Our desire is to reduce the level of sacrifice our warriors have to make as they fulfill their future missions for us and for our nation.
Need a great post-workout beverage? Try drinking a glass or two of chocolate milk during the first 15-60 minutes after exercise to replenish glycogen stores and repair muscles.
Why chocolate milk? The carbohydrate-to-protein ratio in chocolate milk is roughly four-to-one, the best ratio for replenishing glycogen stores while providing adequate protein for muscle building and repair. One eight-ounce glass of chocolate milk provides about 200 calories. It provides carbohydrate, protein, electrolytes such as potassium and sodium, and essential vitamins and minerals such as vitamin D and calcium in an easily digestible liquid form that is inexpensive and readily available, and it tastes good! But be sure to choose heart-healthy low-fat versions.
For those who are lactose intolerant or allergic to dairy products, or for those who simply prefer a plant-based diet, fortified chocolate soymilk is a great alternative.
Have you heard of Total Force Fitness, but you aren’t sure what it is? It’s a framework for building and maintaining health, readiness, and performance in the Department of Defense. It views health, wellness, and resilience as a holistic concept that recognizes “total fitness” as a “state in which the individual, family and organization can sustain optimal well-being and performance under all conditions”—a connection between mind, body, spirit, and family/social relationships. Total fitness shifts the perspective from treatment to wellness and focuses on prevention and strengths.
The Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury created a slide presentation for units and groups on Total Force Fitness: A Brief Overview that describes what TFF is, its core components, and each of its eight “domains” (behavioral, social, physical, environmental, medical and dental, spiritual, nutritional, and psychological). For more in-depth reading, check out the original Military Medicine Supplement that started it all, including a scholarly chapter for each domain.
Red yeast rice is a product of rice fermented with Monascus purpureusyeast. It has been used as food and/or medicine for many centuries in parts of Asia, but it is also available as a dietary supplement. It contains a substance known as monacolin K, a naturally-occurring substance that works like lovastatin, a type of statin. Statins are drugs prescribed to reduce blood cholesterol by limiting the amount of cholesterol produced by the liver. Red yeast rice that contains large amounts of monacolin K can lower blood cholesterol levels, but the amount of monacolin K in red yeast rice ranges from very high to none at all.
The Food and Drug Administration has warned consumers that if a red yeast rice dietary supplement product contains monacolin K, it is considered an unauthorized drug and taking it can carry the same risks—some serious—as the drug lovastatin. As the consumer, you really have no way to know whether a red yeast rice product does or does not contain monacolin K, and therefore no way of knowing if the product is safe, effective, or legal. In addition, red yeast rice (as either a food or dietary supplement) can be contaminated with a form of fungus that can cause kidney failure. You can learn more about the safety and effectiveness of red yeast rice from this National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine web page.
Do you really know what’s in your energy drink? HPRC put together a new resource that points out some common ingredients found in energy drinks. Our ingredient label includes some hidden sources of caffeine and other ingredients that can have stimulant effects on your body. It also highlights other information that you might see on a label, including warnings. So check out the energy drinks infosheet, and then go to Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS) for more information about how to choose dietary supplements safely.