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HPRC Fitness Arena: Nutrition
Vitamin D is actually a hormone that your body produces when your skin is exposed to sunlight, earning it the nickname “sunshine vitamin.” It plays key roles in reducing your risk of many health conditions, including depression, cancer, heart disease, osteoporosis, and others. Spending 10 to 15 minutes outside on a sunny day with your arms and legs uncovered can provide nearly all the vitamin D most people need—challenging when you’re wearing a long-sleeved uniform or working inside all day—but you can also get some vitamin D in your diet from fatty fish (such as salmon), mushrooms, and many fortified foods.
The Recommended Dietary Allowance for most individuals is 600 IUs. People who have a vitamin D deficiency or certain medical conditions might require supplemental vitamin D but only under the supervision of their healthcare provider. That’s because excess vitamin D can be stored in your body, putting you at risk for toxicity. Over time, too much vitamin D can lead to irregular heart rhythms, kidney damage, and other serious health problems. If you take large doses of supplemental vitamin D and eat foods that are fortified with it, you could easily obtain more than recommended amounts.
Despite the risk for toxicity, nearly one-fourth of people living in the U.S. have low vitamin D levels, so all adults and children should have their vitamin D status checked by their healthcare provider. For more information about vitamin D, read this fact sheet from the Office of Dietary Supplements.
Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS) is a joint military initiative between the Human Performance Resource Center (HPRC) and the Department of Defense (DoD) to educate service members and retirees, their family members, leaders, healthcare providers, and DoD clinicians about dietary supplements and how to choose them wisely.
OPSS has partnered with Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (NMCD) to provide all DoD personnel with access to evidence-based information on dietary supplements, including Natural Medicines Brand Evidence-based Ratings (NMBER)®.
Now there is an Operation Supplement Safety & Natural Data (OPSS & ND) app available that can help you make an informed decision by giving you:
- Dietary supplement safety and effectiveness (NMBER) ratings.
- Interaction ratings between drugs and natural medicines, known as “adverse reactions.”
- Effectiveness ratings for natural medicines by medical condition and more.
To access the app you must first visit HPRC’s link to NMCD and sign up for your free account. Click on the Warfighter version and use your valid .mil email address. Once you’ve created your free account you will have access to the full version of the app. Up-to-date reviews of commercially available products, Natural Medicines Brand Evidence-based Ratings (NMBER)® for commercially available products, an Effectiveness Checker, and more will be at your fingertips.
If you have questions, please use the “Ask the Expert” button on the OPSS home page.
Whether you are an endurance or strength athlete or doing a bit of both to stay in fighting shape, you’re always looking for the optimal amount of protein for your daily needs. How much you need depends on activity level and body weight. See HPRC’s new Protein Infosheet to determine the amounts that are right for you. And for information about what to eat before and after workouts, see HPRC’s Athlete Guide to Nutrient Timing.
Fall sports are under way for many adolescent athletes, making it important for teens to know what and when to eat and drink to be at their best. HPRC has created a resource—“Fueling the Adolescent Athlete”—to help your adolescent athlete fuel his or her body for optimal performance. This table provides general guidelines for what teens need to drink and eat before, during, and after practice or workouts.
Staying hydrated goes hand in hand with peak performance. But knowing whether you are hydrated can be difficult. Check out this urine color card from the U.S. Army Public Health Command to get an idea of what to watch out for. And see if your child’s school has the chart posted in the locker rooms and nurse’s office.
For more adolescent and family nutrition information, check out HPRC’s Nutrition section.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is warning consumers about powdered pure caffeine, particularly as sold in bulk on the Internet. At least one death has been associated with the use of such products, and FDA advises consumers about the potency of powdered pure caffeine. See FDA’s Consumer Advice, which includes information about how to report an adverse event.
According to this consumer resource from FDA, you should limit your caffeine intake to just 100–200 mg per day (about 5–10 ounces of coffee). Taking large doses of caffeine—roughly 400–500 mg—at one time can result in a serious condition known as “caffeine intoxication.” Some symptoms of caffeine intoxication are minor and include nausea, vomiting, agitation, nervousness, or headache. Other symptoms can be more life-threatening, such as rapid heartbeat, electrolyte imbalance, very high blood sugar, or high levels of acid in the blood, which can cause seizures. See the OPSS FAQ to help you avoid hidden sources of caffeine.
Omega-3 fatty acids make up a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids. They are important to our health, and since our bodies can’t make them, we need to obtain them from the foods we eat. Omega-3 fatty acids may reduce the risk of heart disease and play an important role in our cell membranes. So, eating more can benefit the body in many ways.
The most widely available dietary source of EPA and DHA is cold-water oily fish such as salmon, herring, mackerel, anchovies, and sardines. Other oily fish such as tuna also contains omega-3 fatty acids but in lesser amounts. Some other sources of ALA are walnuts and canola, soybean, flaxseed/linseed, and olive oils. For additional information, including health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids, read this fact sheet; and for omega-3 content in various foods, try this infosheet from HPRC.
If you’re looking for the latest information on how to improve your sleep, activity, and nutrition, you can find it with the new app for the Performance Triad, an initiative of the U.S. Army Surgeon General. The Performance Triad, which includes technological tools and resources, was rolled out to optimize performance for individuals and units—and ultimately to maximize readiness and resilience. The app is available for free and is available in versions for iPhone, Android, and Windows. Whether you’re a healthcare professional, active duty, spouse, or civilian, you’ll be able to find useful information tailored to you! The app provides tips on how to sleep well, stay active, and eat right. Whether you’re on the go or looking for quick answers, you’ll have lots of great information at your fingertips. This app will be updated frequently, so be sure to keep your eye on it for new information!
HPRC has written several articles about energy drinks, their ingredients, and their potential harmful effects, especially for adolescents. They continue to be the topic of news articles, with another recent death of a teen who apparently consumed several energy drinks while on vacation and then died from cardiac arrest. The American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) urges the public to use caution when consuming energy drinks and lists many potential harmful reactions. Read more on this AAPCC web page, including statistics on reports of “exposures” to energy drinks.
HPRC has an Infosheet on energy drinks, highlighting the ingredients you may find on labels,and their potential stimulant effects. Be aware of the potential dangers, especially for children and teens, as outlined by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
A key step toward achieving and maintaining a healthy weight is learning to accurately gauge how much you’re eating. In other words, how big are your portions? The most accurate way to gauge your portions is to measure or weigh your food, but who wants to take measuring cups and a scale to the chow hall? A more practical way to gauge your portion sizes is to “eyeball” them—that is, to visually compare your food portions to a familiar frame of reference. Of course, you might have larger or smaller hands, but generally speaking your hand size equates to your body size and, as a result, your portion needs. This infographic from HPRC uses your hand as your guide—a “handy” way to keep portion sizes in check, which can mean a leaner, healthier, better-performing you.
Iodine is an essential nutrient. It plays a key role in how well your thyroid functions and is particularly important during pregnancy and breastfeeding for the development of your baby’s brain. The Recommended Dietary Allowance for iodine for most adults is 150 micrograms (mcg). But women who are pregnant or breastfeeding need slightly more: 220 mcg and 290 mcg daily, respectively.
Iodine is present in some foods such as fish, dairy products, fruits, vegetables, and grains. Iodine is also added to table salt—referred to as “iodized salt.” Although most Americans eat too much salt, much of it comes from processed foods and typically isn’t iodized. Consequently, many women who are pregnant are iodine-deficient. If you’re pregnant or breastfeeding, the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend taking a prenatal vitamin to ensure you’re getting enough of all your vitamins and minerals, including iodine. In addition, if you’re vegan or you don’t eat dairy products or fish, talk to your doctor about your iodine status.
Read all prenatal dietary supplement labels carefully—whether they’re prescription or over-the-counter—so you can be certain your prenatal vitamin contains sufficient iodine to meet your needs during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Also, be sure to look for one that is third-party certified. For more information about iodine, read this fact sheet from the National Institutes of Health’s Office of Dietary Supplements.