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HPRC Fitness Arena: Physical Fitness
Do you exercise to music? If you do, you might have noticed that you run faster when a fast-paced, upbeat tune comes on.
Exercise scientists noticed the relationship between exercise and music some time ago. For those of us who aren’t trained athletes, music can have a huge effect on our performance and mood during exercise. Without realizing it, people push themselves harder during exercise when listening to fast-tempo music, which increases heart rate as well as speed, endurance, and in some cases the rate of perceived exertion. Exercisers also feel an improved sense of well-being when working out to music.
So why is it you prefer certain songs when you’re exercising? One explanation suggests that a part of your brain tries to match the movement of your body to the beat of the music. In fact, scientists have found that when you listen to music with about 125–140 beats per minute, both your heartbeat and your movements synchronize to work at the most energy-efficient, optimal level for exercise. In essence, music works with your brain to coordinate your bodily functions and optimize your workout.
The best workout songs seem to share certain characteristics:
- 125-140 beats per minute during exercise; slower for warm-ups, cool-downs, and for some endurance-type exercises
- A motivational or upbeat message
- Familiar tunes or a preferred style of music
- A tempo that matches the rhythm of your exercise
Ask your buddies about their workout playlists too. They might have something totally different to offer—a new beat to stay fit with.
For more tips on how to optimize your workout, explore HPRC’s Physical Fitness domain.
The Performance Triad is well underway, and the Army has been closely monitoring the progress of soldiers at the three test sites (Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Fort Bliss, and Fort Bragg). Soldiers will be assessed on their knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes about the parts of the triad—sleep, activity, and nutrition. Triad staff is currently performing injury-risk assessments for the Military Power, Performance, and Prevention (or “MP3”) program as part of an ongoing process that helps get soldiers into physical therapy and strength-training programs to help reduce the number of “medically not ready soldiers.” You can read more about the Performance Triad in HPRC’s Total Force Fitness domain.
Not only is exercise good for the body, it’s good for the mind. The expert consensus from the International Society of Sport Psychology is that exercise can increase your sense of well-being and help reduce anxiety, tension, and depression.
For veterans coping with depression, PTSD, or other mental-health issues, sports and exercise may be a great way to relieve stress. Scientists have shown the positive benefits of physical activity on symptoms of depression in veterans. What’s more, Veterans’ Administration studies have found that physical activity—especially vigorous activity—can decrease the risk of PTSD among Warfighters. The opposite is also true: Veterans who do not engage in physical activity are more likely to experience PTSD. Several organizations specialize in physical activity and exercise for warriors and their families, but you can always try a yoga class, a family bike ride, or other fitness opportunities in your community.
Getting motivated to exercise and stay active can be especially difficult for those suffering from PTSD and depression. Here are some tips to help you get up and get out the door.
- Make a date with yourself. Put it on your calendar or set a daily alarm—whatever you need to do to remind yourself that you’ve set aside some time for you to exercise. And don’t stand yourself up!
- Set a SMART goal and write it down. Post it on your bathroom mirror, your fridge, your car dashboard—wherever you’ll see it daily to remind yourself of what you want to accomplish.
- Recruit friends or family members to help. Telling people what your goals are is a great way to stay accountable. An exercise partner is especially helpful when you need that extra nudge to get off the couch and start moving.
- Keep a journal. Record your exercise activities and how you felt afterwards. While you may not feel better after every workout, you probably will most of the time. Being able to go back and read/remember how good exercise made you feel may motivate you for the next workout.
Wanting some holistic strategies to enhance your performance? Check out the “One Shot One Kill (OSOK) Performance Enhancement Program” that shows Warfighters how to set up and manage their own performance-enhancement system. OSOK is designed not only to enhance performance but also to jumpstart Warfighter resilience. It builds on the skills that Warfighters already possess and then teaches new ones as needed.
There are two ways you can use OSOK: as an individual through “OSOK Solo” and as a unit/group through “OSOK-IP Unit.” Both highlight “10 Rules of Engagement” and provide seven core modules: Controlled Response, Mind Tactics, Performance-Based Nutrition, Primal Fitness, Purpose, Code, and Recharge. OSOK also provides self-assessment forms so you can track your progress over time.
For other performance-enhancement programs and information about holistic (total) fitness, check out HPRC’s Total Force Fitness domain.
On January 14, 2014 the Marine Corps released MARADMIN 010/14, which details the new requirements for the Marine Corps Embassy Security Group. Marines who want to travel the globe and provide security services for U.S. embassies and consulates now have to meet new, revised standards. Among other things, Marines must be at least 64 inches tall so they can adequately view all areas from Post One (point of entry control at diplomatic posts). In addition, physical fitness standards have changed: Marines will have to achieve 1st Class PFT scores. If you haven’t yet achieved this level of fitness, we have some tips. First and foremost, for optimal fitness, be sure to train smarter, not harder.
Many Warfighters relocate a lot, and moving to a new home is hard enough without the added stress of an injury. Here are some tips on how to properly lift and push/pull heavy objects such as moving boxes and furniture, and how to take care of yourself if you do sustain an injury:
- Wear less-restrictive clothing such as looser-fitting pants or workout clothes.
- Wear closed-toed shoes.
- Take breaks when necessary. Stretching and reassessing your mechanics can help you maintain proper posture when lifting. HPRC has tips on how to maintain flexibility and remove tension in your body.
- The U.S. Army has some additional Lifting Techniques for handling heavy objects.
- Remember to keep your core tight and use your leg muscles rather than your back to lift heavy objects.
The best way to prevent back injury is to strengthen your back and core muscles. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has suggestions and exercises to help build your back.
If you’re sore from all the lifting or think you may have pulled something, you can treat the pain with ice and rest—and perhaps an over-the-counter pain reliever—for the first 48 hours. Follow the NIH guidelines on how to further treat your back pain if it’s acute. However, if the pain persists, consult your doctor to rule out a more serious back problem or injury before you do any more heavy lifting. If all seems well, consider core-strengthening exercises to support your back. Taking a yoga class to relieve your pain, build your muscles, and return your back to normal function is a good option. In a recent large study of adults with chronic low back pain, those who participated in yoga classes saw reduced pain symptoms and improved mobility that lasted for several months.
For more about how to protect your back, please visit HPRC’s Injury Prevention Series. Good luck with your PCS!
Are you tired of the usual morning jog or bike ride? Maybe you have a talent in a particular sport and want to take it up a notch to earn a spot on one of the Armed Forces Sports teams. You’ll find sports such as basketball and soccer, as well as sports at the more extreme end of the spectrum such as parachuting and Tae Kwon Do. One objective of the AFS program is to encourage physical fitness through sports competitions. Another is to provide means for military athletes to participate nationally and internationally. AFS holds U.S. and world championships, and in 2012 some athletes even took part in the London Olympics! If you are considering training for one of these teams, check out the Training & Exercise section of HPRC’s website.
The U.S. Army’s Asymmetric Warfare Group has been training joint forces in some unusual places—underground venues such as tunnels, caves, and sewers. As battlefields become more urban and enemies move underground, subterranean environments pose unique operational challenges. Although the Army does not currently have an official field manual for underground combat, this new tactical training has developed units’ ability to perform in these environments. Combat training centers are starting to integrate these kinds of complex environments into their facilities, and the Army is urging home-station training to “get creative” and use simple techniques to simulate their own underground environments. Something as simple as training in a dark room with obstacles can simulate underground areas. Israeli Defense Forces have also had success with this type of training. Being able to adapt and perform in challenging environments is a vital part of warrior resilience.
The U.S. Army has developed a device that will not only reduce the number of amputations but will help severely injured Warfighters return to duty. In the past, Warfighters with crushed and battered legs faced amputation or, at best, dysfunction due to pain and weakness. Now, with the introduction of the U.S. Army’s newest orthotic technology, amputations and decreased mobility may be a thing of the past for some.
The Intrepid Dynamic Exoskeletal Orthosis (IDEO) is the latest orthotic technology designed for Warfighters whose legs were crushed in combat. It uses technology similar to that of prosthetics worn by amputees and is higher in user satisfaction and performance compared with other braces available. Unlike other braces, IDEO does not depend on ankle movement, so Warfighters with fused ankle bones, where function is limited, can use them with little pain. With each step, IDEO stores energy and transfers it to the back of the brace, which springs the leg forward (similar to running-blade prosthetics). This allows the wearer to continue rebuilding the muscles in his or her leg while also working on functional movement.
In a study conducted by the Center for the Intrepid, eight of ten patients fitted with IDEO were able to run at least two miles without stopping. All ten Warfighters returned to weightlifting, many returned to playing sports or participating in mini-triathlons, and three returned to combat—two with Special Forces and one Army Ranger. The published report emphasized that the success of these patients was due not only to the innovative IDEO but also to the intense rehabilitation program and—most important—the motivation and drive of the individuals.
In combination with rehabilitation programs, IDEO looks like the newest in a wave of innovations that will help Warfighters return to normal function. If you are interested in learning more about IDEO and other innovative rehabilitation programs, please visit the U.S. Army Institute for Surgical Research and the Brooke Army Medical Center’s Center for the Intrepid.
Have you heard the terms “resilience” and “Total Force Fitness,” but you’re not quite sure what they mean or where they fit into the health and performance picture? Read on.
Your health is the foundation. The 2010 article "Why Total Force Fitness?" states, “nothing works without health.” Health is not just physical and not just something to worry about when you’re sick. Health is a combination of physical, mental, spiritual, and social well-being and includes practices that promote wellness in addition to those that help you recover from sickness or injury.
Resilience is next. Resilience is the ability to bounce back—or even better, forward—and thrive after experiencing hardship. It is not the ability to completely withstand hardship but rather the ability to come back from it and grow stronger through the experience.
Next is human performance optimization (HPO). Unlike resilience, which typically requires the experience of hardship, HPO involves performing at your best for whatever goal or mission you have (whether that is your PT test, a combat mission, or raising children). It goes beyond simply resisting challenges; it means functioning at a new optimal level to face new challenges.
Health, resilience, and optimal performance are the foundations of Total Force Fitness, which is defined in the “Physical Fitness” chapter of “Total Force Fitness for the 21st Century” (see link above) as a “state in which the individual, family, and organization can sustain optimal well-being and performance under all conditions.” Being totally fit requires a holistic approach—that is, an approach that doesn’t focus on just one aspect alone such as nutrition or physical fitness, but on multiple domains of fitness. It means attending to your mind (including psychological, behavioral, spiritual, and social components) and your body (including physical, nutritional, medical and environmental components). In order to achieve Total Force Fitness, these factors come together to enhance your resilience and/or performance.
This is where HPRC can help you on your quest for total fitness. By visiting each of our domains—Physical Fitness, Environments, Nutrition, Dietary Supplements, Family & Relationships, and Mind Tactics—you can get evidence-based information on a variety of holistic topics to help you achieve and sustain total fitness. But remember that total fitness is a life-long process that will ebb and flow. And it isn’t just about you; your loved ones are an important piece of the picture, too.