Welcome to the HPRC Blog. We've got lots of information here, from quick tips to in-depth posts about detailed human performance optimization topics.
HPRC Fitness Arena: Physical Fitness
It’s almost time for the Warrior Games in Colorado Springs! Athletes and teams from each branch of service have already qualified in their respective trials and are set to compete from 28 September through 6 October at the U.S. Olympic Training Center in Colorado. The Warrior Games give wounded service members and veterans an opportunity to compete in adaptive sports. For some, this is a continuation of their competitive careers; for others, it’s a new experience and part of the healing process. If you’re in the neighborhood, stop by to cheer on the athletes—admission is free! Semper Citius, Altius, Fortius!
We all have goals—to lift a certain weight, to cycle a century, or to run a marathon in a certain amount of time. Of course, not all goals are fitness oriented; maybe you want to climb in rank at your job or finish college by a certain date. Whatever your goals are, keep in mind that they’re easier to accomplish when they’re SMART goals: Specific, Measurable, Achievable/Action-oriented, and Time-sensitive. Goals are not just about dreaming big; they’re about achieving.
HPRC’s printable SMART goals worksheet will help you to get on target. Using this tool will help you to:
- think through exactly what you’re aiming for;
- determine if the goal is a good fit for you;
- measure and monitor your success;
- pay attention to the language that you use; and
- break down the overall goal into chunks.
And for more guidance on making your goals achievable, you can check out HPRC's Answer on SMART goal setting.
Regular exercise can build strong muscles and bones and promote overall health. It is especially important that children exercise and learn healthy habits early on. Exercise can also boost kids’ self-esteem, improve sleep, and stimulate learning in school. But do you know what kinds of exercise your children or teens should be doing? Check out HPRC’s Answer, “Put some fun in your children’s fitness,” to find out. And visit the COAM website to learn more about the American College of Sports Medicine’s National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month.
These days there’s an app for just about everything, including injury prevention. In fact, there are many apps for that. But the truth is that most of them are not backed by science. Unfortunately, among the thousands of smartphone apps in the fitness, medical, and sports categories, only a handful provide evidence-based information on injury prevention.
After sifting through hundreds of different fitness and sports-related apps, researchers in a 2012 study found only 18 apps claiming to provide tips for injury prevention and rehabilitation. Only four of these apps contained claims for which they could find supporting scientific evidence. For example, the “Ankle” app was developed to implement an exercise program based on results from a well-conducted study. Other of these four apps appeared to be evidence-based only by coincidence, not as the result of a sound background search of the scientific literature. By comparison, five apps provided tips (such as warming up, stretching, proper shoes) to prevent running injuries despite a lack of evidence that the recommended practices actually reduce risk of injury. Other apps contained equally unsupported claims in areas such as shoulder injury, plantar fasciitis, and delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). One even cited published literature that did not support its claims.
If you’re searching for injury-prevention strategies, it’s important to be wary of apps that contain inaccurate or unsupported information. The visual appeal and usability of an app may not necessarily reflect the quality of information, especially when it comes to injury-prevention tips. And while the study mentioned above is more than a year old, it’s unlikely the situation has changed. Check out HPRC’s injury-prevention resources or talk to a physical therapist if you have other concerns about injury prevention.
Have you ever felt great after a hard workout, only to find yourself incredibly sore a day or two later? Muscle pain a day or so after exercise is common among recreational athletes. Known as delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), this condition can be treated at home—and possibly even prevented—with simple techniques. Strategies to prevent or reduce DOMS include stretching, protein/carbohydrate recovery drinks, and cold-water immersion. Over-the-counter medications can also help with pain but should be used infrequently and at the lowest effective dose. For more detailed information about DOMS and how to prevent and recover from it, read HPRC’s Answer, “Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness.”
The saying goes that “less is more,” but when it comes to exercise intensity, that might not be the case. We know that some exercise is better than no exercise, but is more-intense exercise better than moderate exercise? How hard should you push? And what are the benefits? With the growing popularity of high-intensity workouts, it’s important to consider both the risks and the benefits.
The role of intensity during exercise has been studied before. For example, the risk of death in older adults is lower for those who walk at a faster pace than for those who walk at a more leisurely pace. However, new research demonstrates that pushing yourself during a workout not only helps make you mentally tough but may also release chemicals into your body that help you develop bigger, stronger muscles.
During “stressful” or high-intensity exercise, your body kicks into “fight or flight” mode and releases hormones such as adrenaline and dopamine to push your system into high gear: increased heart rate, increased breathing rate, and increased oxygen to muscles. A recent study found that these hormones, when released during stressful exercise, sent messages to muscle cells to develop larger and more efficient muscles—at least in mice. The body only releases these chemicals when it feels stressed (for example, during intense exercise). If the body doesn’t feel stressed (as during light exercise), it doesn’t release these chemicals, so it can’t send signals to the muscles.
The good news is that exercise intensity is relative, so anyone should be able to exercise at a level that releases these hormones. Whether you’re just starting out or you’re a seasoned athlete, you can exercise to a level that is intense for you. Shooting for your target heart rate is a good start to gauging intensity. Not every workout needs to top out the intensity scale. In fact, doing too much too often can lead to overtraining and potential injury. Remember to listen to your body and incorporate rest or light days into your workout regimen.
If you’re looking for the latest information on how to improve your sleep, activity, and nutrition, you can find it with the new app for the Performance Triad, an initiative of the U.S. Army Surgeon General. The Performance Triad, which includes technological tools and resources, was rolled out to optimize performance for individuals and units—and ultimately to maximize readiness and resilience. The app is available for free and is available in versions for iPhone, Android, and Windows. Whether you’re a healthcare professional, active duty, spouse, or civilian, you’ll be able to find useful information tailored to you! The app provides tips on how to sleep well, stay active, and eat right. Whether you’re on the go or looking for quick answers, you’ll have lots of great information at your fingertips. This app will be updated frequently, so be sure to keep your eye on it for new information!
Activity monitors have become increasingly popular tools to help people get and stay on track with their fitness (and dietary) goals. But, researchers from Iowa State University wanted to see just how accurate some of the popular monitors really are when it comes to reporting how many calories you burn during exercise. It turns out that the majority of the devices they tested gave pretty accurate estimates (within 10-15% error). The BodyMedia FIT was the most accurate one tested, with only a 9.3% error rating, which is close to some more expensive devices used for research purposes. Other monitors such as the FitBit Zip, FitBit One, Jawbone Up, and Nike Fuel Band all fell below 15%. Since many people tend to overestimate their activity levels on their own, an accurate activity monitor is an important tool to help people keep better track of their exercise habits. Check out our comparison chart to find out more about these monitors.
You’ve probably seen the pictures on social media and in the news: a very pregnant woman, with a heavy barbell on her shoulders, mid squat, in an Olympic powerlifting move. But is it safe for mother and baby? If this is a situation you might find yourself in, and/or you’ve talked to your doctor about a pregnancy exercise regimen, there are some things you should know about weight lifting and exercise. Read HPRC’s “Lifting weights during pregnancy” for more information.
Running provides an inexpensive and effective way to get your child or adolescent excited about physical fitness for a lifetime. Beyond the physical health benefits, running can also lead to improvements in classroom behavior, self-control, self-esteem, alertness, enthusiasm, creativity, and maturity.
For children of all ages, running is one of the most versatile and natural physical activities. In younger children, running should be encouraged through fun activities such as tag, capture the flag, the fox and the hound, and red light green light. By keeping running fun, your child may learn to enjoy exercise at an early age, helping him or her maintain those habits as he/she gets older.
For older children interested in the sport of running, there are some additional ways to help your child become a strong, healthy runner. Learn more about proper running form, training, hydration, diet, shoes, and safety, which may help your child’s performance and may also decrease his or her risk of injury.