Welcome to the HPRC Blog. We've got lots of information here, from quick tips to in-depth posts about detailed human performance optimization topics.
HPRC Fitness Arena: Total Force Fitness
Performing physical activity—whether exercise or mission demands—at moderate (4,000–7,900 ft or 1,200–2,400 m) and high (7,900–13,000 ft or 2,400–4,000 m) altitudes can be challenging. At high altitude, oxygen pressure is lower, which results in less oxygen in the blood and muscle tissues. And as altitude increases, there’s a decrease in air temperature (about 2°F for every 500 ft or 150 m), less moisture (resulting in drier air), and increased solar radiation. Use sunscreen, drink plenty of water, and watch out for the signs of acute mountain sickness: headache, nausea, shortness of breath, and impaired cognition and balance.
To learn more about altitude sickness, read the article “The Invisible Enemy of the Afghanistan Mountains” on the United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) website. And learn more about performance at altitude in the Altitude section of HPRC's Environment domain.
Have you ever wondered why people who do the same resistance training workouts day after day aren’t getting the results they want? The goal of resistance training is to create an “adaptation response”—that is, to get your body to change in response to the demands. Once your body has adapted to a specific training program, you need to change the demands you place on it. If you don’t, you’ll find yourself eventually reaching a plateau where you don’t make any more gains—or sometimes even lose progress. One way to avoid this common training mistake is to implement “periodization”—the systematic shaking up of your routine (intensity and numbers of sets and reps). This method can optimize your training gains and minimize the risks of overtraining and injury. Implementing these training routines requires a strength training expert, so make sure you seek assistance. For example, the Army has implemented a new program for Master Fitness Trainers. And for more information on strength training, check out the HPRC’s Performance Strategies for Muscular Strength.
If you’re a smoker, you’re probably aware of the products that advertise helping you cut back. One alternative that manufacturers claim is a safe alternative is electronic cigarettes, commonly known as “e-cigarettes.” Their purported safety is largely based on the fact that you’re inhaling tobacco vapor rather than smoke. But are those claims of safety accurate? FDA states that e-cigarettes have not been fully studied, and it is unknown whether they are safe and what their effects are. There is no way for users to know how much nicotine and other harmful chemicals they might be inhaling. According to an article from Quit Tobacco, Make Everyone Proud there are more reasons to think twice
- The long-term impact of using e-cigarettes is still unknown.
- E-cigarettes are not standardized or regulated. Not only are levels of nicotine and other ingredients unknown, but other hazards such as liquid nicotine leaks or battery malfunctions have occurred.
- There also is concern over e-cigarettes appealing to children because many have sweet flavors.
With current and future military operations in mountainous regions, the issue of acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a significant medical concern. AMS can affect anyone, military or civilian, who is unacclimatized and/or ascends too rapidly to high altitudes. Symptoms of AMS can include headache, nausea, fatigue, dizziness, and sleep disturbances. Recently, researchers at USARIEM were able to predict the severity and prevalence of AMS after rapid ascent to various altitudes. What they found was that for every thousand-meter increase in elevation over 2,000 m, a person was over four times more likely to develop AMS. In addition, the severity of sickness doubled, and the odds that the AMS would worsen increased almost five-fold. AMS appeared to peak at 18 to 22 hours of exposure to altitude and then went away after 42 to 48 hours. The severity of sickness is greatest above 4,000 meters and may require evacuation to lower altitude or immediate medical attention. It also appears that men are more likely than women to get AMS and more likely for it to be severe. For both men and women, the more active they were at altitude, the longer it took to recover. These findings support current recommendation to limit activity as much as possible in the first 24 hours at altitude to decrease the risk for AMS.
This information should help military leaders manage and perhaps prevent AMS among troops by knowing the elevation, types of activities, and lengths of stay at altitudes.
In order to reduce the risk for AMS, acclimate to moderate elevations (2,000 – 3,000 m) if/when possible. In addition, stay hydrated and try to limit your physical activity at altitude for the first 24 hours. Read more about the effects of altitude on performance and how to minimize your risk for AMS.
Sugar can be present in foods even when we don’t know it. Some hidden sources of sugar on listed food labels are high-fructose corn syrup, brown rice syrup, brown sugar, honey, maple syrup, glucose, (or dextrose), lactose, sucrose, and the sugar alcohols sorbitol, zylitol, mannitol, and maltitol. Those people watching their sugar intake should read labels carefully to spot hidden sources.
A new website from the Army National Guard’s Health Promotion Program, Guard Your Health, supports readiness and overall health of soldiers and their families through articles, tools, health tips, expert commentary, and community forums on a variety of health areas. You can expect to find information on health topics such as nutrition, exercise, stress, sleep, dental health, sexual health, and family resilience.
The dietary supplement and fitness industries are filled with sport drinks, powders, bars, pills, gels, footwear, clothing, and an array of devices all claiming to provide you with a competitive advantage, whether it be improved performance or enhanced recovery. With the ever-growing popularity of team and individual sports, professional and recreational athletes of all ages are an easy target for these claims. But how many of these claims are backed by evidence-based research?
A recent report now reviews the quality of evidence behind the claims of improved sports performance made by advertisers for a wide range of sports-related products, including sport drinks, supplements, footwear, and clothing. The team identified 431 performance-enhancing claims for 104 products advertised in more than 100 general, sport, and fitness magazines in the UK and U.S. for a single month in 2012. They found that more than half of the advertisements and their associated websites provided no evidence to support the claims of enhanced sports performance. Only 146 references were found, and only 74 of these met basic criteria for research quality and almost all of the 74 were found likely to be biased or lacking scientific objectivity. Only three studies were rated as “high” quality and probably unbiased. Such lack of evidence makes it very difficult for consumers to make well-informed decisions about using performance-enhancing sports products.
This review makes it clear that many of the claims made for sports and fitness products lack reliable evidence to support them and that more and better studies are needed to help inform consumers. In the meantime, consumers should be cautious when reading claims of enhanced performance and recovery and always remember that “true” evidence-based results mean that a substantial number of independent research studies have been performed, with findings that clearly support the claims made by advertisers. Presently, there is still no substitute for sound physical conditioning and nutrition practices.
For more information on dietary supplements and how to choose supplements safely, please visit Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS). For information on physical fitness and conditioning, please explore HPRC’s Physical Fitness domain. The original British Medical Journal open-access article is available online.
Giant hogweed—no, it’s not an ingredient in one of Harry Potter’s potions; it’s a large poisonous plant that started to bloom in the northeast and northwest areas of the U.S. and parts of Canada earlier this month. If you’re out for a ruck march through the woods and you come across this plant, do not touch it. The sap can cause irritation and burns to your skin and perhaps blindness if it gets into your eyes. If you do happen to come in contact with it, be sure to wash your skin with soap and water and keep the area out of the sunlight for 48 hours. Giant hogweed can grow 14 feet or higher. It’s characterized by large leaves and white, umbrella-shaped flower clusters at the top of the plant. It may be difficult to distinguish from other non-poisonous plants such as cow parsnip, so err on the side of safety if you’re not sure. You can read more about identifying invasive species in your area from the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Tribulus terrestris is used as an ingredient in some dietary supplement products marketed as testosterone “boosters” and/or to enhance muscle strength. What is it and does it work? Read this OPSS FAQ about Tribulus terrestris to find out. Also, be sure to check the OPSS section often, as we add answers to other questions about ingredients in performance-enhancing and bodybuilding supplements. OPSS can help you learn how to choose supplements safely.
If you have a question about a particular dietary supplement ingredient or product, and you can’t find the answer on our website, please use our “Ask the Expert” button located on the OPSS home page.
Pre-deployment can mean a number of things to a Warfighter, from intense training or drills to saying farewell to family and friends. Preparation for deployment can be over months or at a moment’s notice with little or no time to settle your affairs. It’s important to have a checklist and contact list ready to use prior to your departure so you’re ready, whatever the scenario.
Having your personal finances in order should be a high priority. Options for being ready might include contacting a financial advisor, setting up automatic deposits and withdrawals, creating a monthly budget, checking into over-withdrawal options, adding a close friend or family member to your account to act in your absence, and reviewing your financial information and account numbers with a responsible person. Once all your financial ducks are in a row, your finances will be easy to maintain.
Your checklist should also include items such as legal documents, personal property review, auto and home insurance and maintenance, medical information, and international phone coverage.