Welcome to the HPRC Blog. We've got lots of information here, from quick tips to in-depth posts about detailed human performance optimization topics.
HPRC Fitness Arena: Total Force Fitness
Do milk products make you queasy, gassy, or—worse—send you running to the bathroom? If so, you might have lactose intolerance, a condition caused by a deficiency of lactase, an enzyme produced in the small intestine. Lactase breaks down lactose, a naturally occurring sugar present in milk and milk products.
Symptoms of lactose intolerance include nausea, gas, cramping, and diarrhea and usually occur 30 minutes to two hours after eating milk products. Anyone (at any age) can develop lactose intolerance, but it’s more common among adults of African, American Indian, Asian, Jewish, or Mexican heritage. People who have digestive diseases such as Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, or celiac disease are more likely to be lactose intolerant too.
Some people with lactose intolerance have to avoid all milk products, but others can handle small amounts of cultured milk products such as yogurt, kefir, or buttermilk. If you think you have lactose intolerance, experiment with milk products to see what you can handle.
Many processed foods (including MREs) contain milk products, so learn to be label-savvy: Look for words on food packages that indicate a product might have milk or milk products such as whey, curds, milk byproducts, dry milk solids, and nonfat dry milk powder. Missing your ice cream? Over-the-counter enzyme products can help you tolerate lactose-containing foods if taken with the first bite of food.
Don’t confuse lactose intolerance with milk allergy, an immune response to casein or whey, two proteins found in milk. Symptoms of milk allergy are typically mild and include:
- Runny nose, sneezing, or shortness of breath
- Swollen lips, tongue, or throat
- Rash, hives, or itchy skin
However, severe milk allergy can cause anaphylaxis, a serious, life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention. People with severe milk allergy should read labels carefully to avoid all milk products.
Of course, limiting or avoiding milk products could put you at greater risk of developing osteoporosis or “brittle bones.” That’s because milk products contain calcium, an essential nutrient for healthy bones. Look for other calcium-rich foods such as dark-green leafy vegetables, almonds, beans, shellfish, or calcium-fortified juices, soymilk, or almond milk.
To learn more about lactose intolerance, read this informative article from the National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse.
A popular sport psychology technique Warfighters can use is mental imagery. This is the practice of seeing (and feeling) in your mind’s eye how you want to perform a skill, as if you were actually doing it. It can augment your usual training and help you maintain—or even surpass—your current skill level, even when you’re sidelined.
Some of the ways that imagery helps performance include:
- Better decision-making
- Fewer errors
- Improved attention
- Increased confidence
- Reduced stress and anxiety
You can generate imagery in your mind for just about any task (improving your running time or marksmanship, for example). Good mental imagery incorporates all of the senses, and it often helps to listen to a scripted audio recording. You can create your own and/or work with a CSF Prep Master Resilience Trainer-Performance Expert to develop one.
Watching others can also help. In fact, being a spectator can boost learning even more than mental imagery by itself because you’re viewing what you’d like to accomplish rather than conjuring up images with your own mind. Both methods of learning are effective. Observing can be in-person or by video, but you can also combine video/imagery approaches and potentially get even more bang for your buck.
With either approach, or with the combined approach, it is important to “feel” yourself executing the skill, even though you might be sitting or lying down. Of course, imagery doesn’t have to be done while you’re sitting still. Try using imagery in the setting where you’ll actually perform the skill. You can even incorporate it into existing training protocols.
Watch HPRC for future posts where we’ll explain how to create your own imagery. Until then, check out other mental performance skills located in Mind Tactics.
Building family resilience is a process that lasts a lifetime, but it can be immensely rewarding. But what is resilience and how can military families in particular build it? HPRC has a resource called “Building Family Resilience” that can give you answers to these questions. The article covers military-specific stressors for families—including how deployment and reintegration impact family relationships, war-related physical and mental health conditions, and individual stress responses and risky behaviors in family members, both adults and children. It also highlights three key resilience-building skills—mind-body, cognitive-behavioral, and communication—and highlights resources to build resilience. Check it out.
For more information on building family resilience, check out the Family Resilience section of HPRC’s website.
The U.S. Army has developed a device that will not only reduce the number of amputations but will help severely injured Warfighters return to duty. In the past, Warfighters with crushed and battered legs faced amputation or, at best, dysfunction due to pain and weakness. Now, with the introduction of the U.S. Army’s newest orthotic technology, amputations and decreased mobility may be a thing of the past for some.
The Intrepid Dynamic Exoskeletal Orthosis (IDEO) is the latest orthotic technology designed for Warfighters whose legs were crushed in combat. It uses technology similar to that of prosthetics worn by amputees and is higher in user satisfaction and performance compared with other braces available. Unlike other braces, IDEO does not depend on ankle movement, so Warfighters with fused ankle bones, where function is limited, can use them with little pain. With each step, IDEO stores energy and transfers it to the back of the brace, which springs the leg forward (similar to running-blade prosthetics). This allows the wearer to continue rebuilding the muscles in his or her leg while also working on functional movement.
In a study conducted by the Center for the Intrepid, eight of ten patients fitted with IDEO were able to run at least two miles without stopping. All ten Warfighters returned to weightlifting, many returned to playing sports or participating in mini-triathlons, and three returned to combat—two with Special Forces and one Army Ranger. The published report emphasized that the success of these patients was due not only to the innovative IDEO but also to the intense rehabilitation program and—most important—the motivation and drive of the individuals.
In combination with rehabilitation programs, IDEO looks like the newest in a wave of innovations that will help Warfighters return to normal function. If you are interested in learning more about IDEO and other innovative rehabilitation programs, please visit the U.S. Army Institute for Surgical Research and the Brooke Army Medical Center’s Center for the Intrepid.
Winter’s not over yet. The next month or more can bring anything from ice and sleet to “Snowmageddons” and polar vortexes. Winter weather can be dangerous for you, your family, and even your pets if you’re not prepared. In the event of an emergency you should know what to do to protect yourself and your loved ones. The National Center for Disaster Medicine and Public Health has compiled a list of resources that offer information, tips, and checklists for winter-weather emergencies and general cold-weather health. Stay warm, safe, and resilient!
Have you heard the terms “resilience” and “Total Force Fitness,” but you’re not quite sure what they mean or where they fit into the health and performance picture? Read on.
Your health is the foundation. The 2010 article "Why Total Force Fitness?" states, “nothing works without health.” Health is not just physical and not just something to worry about when you’re sick. Health is a combination of physical, mental, spiritual, and social well-being and includes practices that promote wellness in addition to those that help you recover from sickness or injury.
Resilience is next. Resilience is the ability to bounce back—or even better, forward—and thrive after experiencing hardship. It is not the ability to completely withstand hardship but rather the ability to come back from it and grow stronger through the experience.
Next is human performance optimization (HPO). Unlike resilience, which typically requires the experience of hardship, HPO involves performing at your best for whatever goal or mission you have (whether that is your PT test, a combat mission, or raising children). It goes beyond simply resisting challenges; it means functioning at a new optimal level to face new challenges.
Health, resilience, and optimal performance are the foundations of Total Force Fitness, which is defined in the “Physical Fitness” chapter of “Total Force Fitness for the 21st Century” (see link above) as a “state in which the individual, family, and organization can sustain optimal well-being and performance under all conditions.” Being totally fit requires a holistic approach—that is, an approach that doesn’t focus on just one aspect alone such as nutrition or physical fitness, but on multiple domains of fitness. It means attending to your mind (including psychological, behavioral, spiritual, and social components) and your body (including physical, nutritional, medical and environmental components). In order to achieve Total Force Fitness, these factors come together to enhance your resilience and/or performance.
This is where HPRC can help you on your quest for total fitness. By visiting each of our domains—Physical Fitness, Environments, Nutrition, Dietary Supplements, Family & Relationships, and Mind Tactics—you can get evidence-based information on a variety of holistic topics to help you achieve and sustain total fitness. But remember that total fitness is a life-long process that will ebb and flow. And it isn’t just about you; your loved ones are an important piece of the picture, too.
There’s an old adage you may have heard: “Eat after eight, put on weight.” And maybe you’ve experienced it first-hand: You noticed that eating those late night pizzas and ice cream really packed on the pounds. But was your weight gain due to timing or just the high calorie counts? According to research in the field of circadian rhythms (CRs)—the 24-hour cycle of your body’s biological, hormonal, and behavioral patterns—it seems that when you eat could be just as important to weight gain as what you eat.
Deep within your brain sits a small cluster of nerve cells—a “master clock” of sorts—that’s responsible for orchestrating your CRs. Each biological system in your body works on a different CR schedule, and the master clock keeps all the schedules in sync. For example, CRs influence your body’s production of the hormones that regulate hunger, as well as how your body uses and stores fats and sugar, ultimately influencing your body weight, performance, and overall health. Other hormones, such as the ones that tell you when you’re full, are switched on or off according to a variety of inputs.
The two greatest influences on how well your master clock is able to keep things in sync are light and food. Light tells your brain how much sleep you get (think: eyes closed, less light). Food (smell, taste, and consumption) tells your body to produce a myriad of chemicals. As a result, staying up late at night, working shifts, and eating at all hours of the day and night—whether voluntarily or due to the demands of overseas deployments, training demands, shift-work schedules, and even parenthood—can play havoc with your circadian rhythms.
In an interesting twist, not only do CRs influence hunger and body weight, but excess body fat and/or a high-fat diet may disrupt CRs. This can lead to further weight gain, culminating in a collection of health problems known as “metabolic syndrome.” In the U.S., regular loss of sleep closely parallels the occurrence of metabolic syndrome. In addition, researchers have found that people who sleep less or have poor-quality sleep are more likely to become obese.
What to do? Make a conscious effort to “normalize” your daily routines as much as possible to maintain regular mealtimes. Whether you choose to eat three regular-sized meals or four to six smaller meals a day, space them out through the daylight hours to take advantage of your body’s natural rhythms. Here are some suggestions to avoid eating late at night:
- Try to eat a balanced dinner at least two hours before you go to bed, and take a walk afterwards when possible.
- Sip on soothing herbal tea or flavored water (without sugar).
- Be aware that watching TV (especially food-related ads) can trigger your desire to eat.
- Sometimes it can help to create new nighttime rituals that don’t involve eating, such as light stretching or yoga, taking a warm bath, listening to soothing music, or reading (or listening to) a book.
But if you find yourself up late at night—whether it’s due to a hard day at work, regular shiftwork, or temporary shifts due to jet lag or an infant’s night feedings—resist the urge to snack out of boredom or to “keep your energy up.” Shift workers should pack or purchase a healthy meal to eat during their work hours—one that includes lean protein and complex carbohydrates such as whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. Eat early in the shift if possible, so you’ll have the energy you need to think and move efficiently. Travelers and parents should look for healthy snacks that follow a similar pattern. And try to limit coffee, tea, and other sources of caffeine to just two to four servings a day.
Of course, eating is just one half of the CR equation. Getting enough sleep is important too, so read HPRC’s overview for great tips on how Warfighters can improve their sleep.
Misinformation abounds regarding ideal nap lengths for optimal cognitive performance. You need sleep to function at your best. If you do not get the recommended seven to eight hours of sleep a night, then napping can help. Learn more in HPRC’s Answer, “Nap to be at Your Best Mentally.”
Are you or is a service member you know going through rehab for an injury? Well it should be a comfort to know that there are people out there working hard to make sure you/they receive the best and most advanced forms of therapy and technology during rehab. The Center for Rehabilitation Sciences Research (CRSR) is headquartered at the Uniformed Services University, in Bethesda, MD, and their goals are to find solutions for improving rehabilitative care for injured service members and promote successful return to duty and reintegration. Most of their research is focused in the areas of orthopedic trauma, limb loss, and neurological complications, but they’re not working alone. Their expert team of researchers is partnered with other military medical facilities across the country, and they are committed to educating and training future healthcare providers within the military healthcare system. Visit the CRSR website to learn more about their current research, publications, and events.
Garcinia cambogia is being used as a dietary supplement ingredient in some products marketed for weight loss. What is it? And is it effective? Read this Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS) FAQ about Garcinia cambogia to find out. Be sure to check back often, as we add answers to other questions about ingredients in performance and weight-loss supplements and how to choose supplements safely.
If you have more questions about a particular dietary supplement ingredient or product, you can visit the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database or use our “Ask the Expert” button located on the OPSS home page.