Filed under: Diet
If you’ve ever eaten something spicy and felt a burning sensation on your tongue, then you’ve eaten capsaicin. Capsaicin is the substance found in chili peppers such as jalapeños, serranos, and habaneros that gives them their spiciness. Although humans have been eating peppers for thousands of years, capsaicin has only recently come into the supplement spotlight. As an isolated ingredient, it is usually sold as capsules labeled “cayenne pepper” or “capsicum” after the family of peppers that naturally contain capsaicin.
Capsaicin supplements are marketed to aid with weight loss in three ways: increase energy use, burn fat, and decrease appetite. Some scientific evidence supports these statements, but the results of most studies were inconsistent, short-lived, and didn’t always result in weight loss. Long-term effects of taking capsaicin supplements, especially at high doses, are still unknown, so their safety over time needs further investigation.
Although capsaicin is considered safe to consume in food, capsaicin supplements can cause gastrointestinal issues (gas, stomach pain, and diarrhea) for some people. They also can interact with certain medications and other herbal supplements, so you should consult a healthcare provider before taking it. Capsaicin supplements also may not be safe if you are allergic to peppers or if you‘re pregnant or lactating.
Visit Operation Supplement Safety for more OPSS FAQs about weight loss.
Most Americans don’t eat enough fruits and vegetables, especially purple fruits and vegetables. But give these foods a second thought: Eating purple fruits and vegetables could improve your diet, lower your blood pressure, and give you a smaller waist.
Purple fruits and vegetables great sources of vitamins, minerals, and fiber, and many are also high in plant compounds such as anthocyanins, which give these foods their purplish colors. Anthocyanins have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and help protect against heart disease, cancer, and age-related memory loss.
Power your performance with foods high in anthocyanins such as açai berries, blackberries, blueberries, cranberries, black raspberries, red cabbage, red and purple grapes, eggplant, and red onions. Try making a parfait with your favorite berries, low-fat Greek yogurt, and granola for a sweet treat. If you’re craving something more savory, how about an eggplant parmesan for dinner? (Bonus: You’ll get another antioxidant—lycopene—from the tomato sauce!)
Lycopene is a chemical that gives some fruits and vegetables their red, pink, and orange hues. Most of the lycopene that people eat comes from ripe tomatoes and tomato products, but other foods high in lycopene include watermelon, red- or pink-fleshed guava, red-fleshed papaya, pink grapefruit, and apricots. These foods are also great sources of vitamins A and C, folate, potassium, and fiber. In addition to being nutritious, foods high in lycopene have been linked to lower risk of cancer (specifically, prostate) and heart disease thanks to lycopene’s antioxidative properties.
If eating a whole, raw tomato doesn’t seem appetizing, don’t fret. There are countless ways to add lycopene-rich foods into your eating plan. You actually get more lycopene from cooked and canned tomatoes and tomato products because cooking makes lycopene easier for your body to absorb. Make a pesto with sun-dried tomatoes or add them to a sandwich for a tangy touch. Instead of stuffed peppers, try stuffed tomatoes; or make a simple pasta dish with marinara sauce. Eat half a grapefruit with your breakfast or use it to top a salad at lunch (but check for interactions if you’re taking any drugs). For dessert, blend some frozen papaya and watermelon to make your own sorbet or smoothie.
For more information on lycopene, visit the American Cancer Society.
Hemp, or Cannabis sativa, is the plant that naturally contains the substance tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana) although the chemical can also be produced in a laboratory. Historically, the hemp plant has been used for fiber in clothing, rope, paper, etc., as well as for nutritional, medicinal, and recreational purposes.
According to a 2015 report on hemp prepared for Congress, different varieties (and parts) of the cannabis plant are grown and used for different purposes. “Industrial hemp”—the kind grown for agricultural crops (including in foods, beverages, and dietary supplements)—is typically less than 1% THC. Cannabis grown to produce marijuana usually contains around 10% (but can exceed 30%) THC in the parts of the plant used.
DoD policy as set in DoDI 1010.01 specifically mentions marijuana, “synthetic cannabinoids,” and controlled substances (which include THC), but does not mention hemp per se, and test levels for THC are described in DoDI 1010.16. However, each military service has its own policy on the use of hemp products:
- Air Force: AFI 90-507, section 1.1.6, states that “the ingestion of products containing or products derived from hemp seed or hemp seed oil is prohibited.”
- Army: Army Substance Abuse Program, AR600-85, section 4-2p states “this regulation prohibits Soldiers from using Hemp or products containing Hemp oil.”
- Navy: OPNAVINST 5350.4d, Drug Testing Program, Enclosure (2), states that the “Navy has ‘zero tolerance’ for...the wrongful use, possession, manufacture, or distribution of a controlled substance,” which includes marijuana and THC. The Navy does not have a formal policy on the use of hemp products in food.
- Coast Guard: ALCOAST 026/99 and COMDTINST M1000.10, section 3.A, state that “ingestion of hemp oil or products made with hemp oil is misconduct that will not be tolerated in the Coast Guard.”
Currently, hemp seeds are being added to a variety of foods (such as yogurt, energy bars, etc.), and based on service policies, such products are prohibited.
For more answers to common questions we’ve received about dietary supplements, please visit our Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS) FAQs.
If you’re avoiding grains due to a particular diet plan, or if you think you have to exclude grains due to gluten sensitivities, you may want to think again. HPRC has put together a table of grains (with and without gluten) and their basic nutrients to point out how nutritious grains can be. Even for those who are gluten-free or sensitive to gluten, the table shows there are plenty of healthy, gluten-free options to incorporate into your diet.
As the table indicates, whole grains are very nutrient dense: They contain fiber, vitamins such as niacin and folate (and other B vitamins), minerals such as calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, manganese, zinc, and selenium, as well as protein and branched-chain amino acids.
A diet rich in whole grains has been associated with lower risk of Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Paleo diet followers, as well as those who are following a gluten-free diet, need not eliminate whole grains from their diet. The benefits are vast, with many choices for a varied diet. For more information about whole grains, see the ChooseMyPlate.gov resource, “Why is it important to eat grains, especially whole grains?”
Bright orange fruits and vegetables contain performance-boosting nutrients and should be included as part of your colorful plate. You may just imagine oranges and carrots when you think orange, but orange includes vegetables such as pumpkin, sweet potatoes, butternut squash, orange peppers, and fruits such as mango (the most widely consumed fruit in the world), peaches, apricots, papayas, cantaloupe, and persimmon.
Vitamin C, fiber, potassium, and folic acid are just some of the powerful nutrients found in many orange fruits and vegetables. The bright orange color is due to the phytochemicals (plant compounds) carotenoids. Beta-carotene, which your body converts to vitamin A, gives yellow and orange vegetables their rich color and supports your immune function, promotes eye and heart health, and reduces the risk of cancer.
There are plenty of ways to incorporate more orange on your plate at any meal. For breakfast, add sliced orange, mango, peach, cantaloupe, or papaya to your cereal or in a homemade smoothie; for lunch, top your salad with chopped orange peppers or shredded carrots; and for a healthy version of fries at dinner slice sweet potatoes, sprinkle them with olive oil, salt, and pepper, and bake.
Do you think of white when you hear “make your plate a rainbow of colors?” Think again! White fruits—bananas, pears, white nectarines and peaches, and vegetables such as cauliflower, potatoes, garlic, mushrooms, onions, white corn, turnips, parsnips, kohlrabi, and jicama—are all full of nutrients and count towards your daily fruit and vegetable intake.
White fruits and vegetables contribute fiber, potassium, and magnesium, which most Americans don’t get enough of. Many white fruits and vegetables are also high in flavonoids, which give these plants their white color. Flavonoids are plant compounds shown to be anti-inflammatory and to help protect against heart disease and cancer. And allium, a component found in garlic and onion, has antioxidant properties and cardiovascular benefits.
Incorporating nutrient-dense white fruits and vegetables into your meals and snacks is easy. Add sliced bananas or pear to your oatmeal in the morning, or roast hearty root vegetables such as turnips, potatoes, and parsnips with olive oil, dried herbs, and spices for a delicious dish. Sauté onions and garlic to add flavor to pasta, rice, and stir-fry dishes.
For fruit- and vegetable-filled tips, resources, and recipes, visit Fruits & Veggies—More Matters.
Two new performance optimization documents are now available on the U.S. Army Public Health Command website. The Performance Triad Guide contains useful tools and strategies for optimizing your sleep, activity, and nutrition.
The Sleep section includes ten effective sleep habits, strategies for addressing sleep countermeasures (caffeine and supplements, for example), and considerations for a sleep management plan, including relaxation techniques.
Activity has tips for meeting your exercise goals, how to achieve the functional fitness required to succeed on the PRT, as well as information on injury prevention that includes safe running strategies and shoe selection.
Nutrition provides detailed information on nutrition for performance, daily carbohydrate and protein calculators, hydration, nutrient timing for peak performance, and dietary supplements.
The Performance Triad Challenge, designed for squad and unit leaders, provides information organized into six areas: the professional soldier athlete, physical dominance, cognitive dominance, emotional dominance, sustained operations, and social, family, and spiritual information. The beginning of each module features a leader’s guide for identifying target areas for improvement.
The Combat Rations Database, or “ComRaD,” offers up-to-date nutrition information on military combat rations, including Meal, Ready-to-Eat (MRE), First Strike Ration® (FSR), and Cold Weather/Long Range Patrol (MCW/LRP). Warriors, dietitians, food-service officers, and leaders can look up the complete combat ration meals, as well as their individual food components, and obtain information about calories, fat, vitamins, and minerals.
Check out ComRaD on HPRC’s website, and check back often to see new features that will be added in the near future, including a “cart” you can use to add and remove foods eaten and then tally up overall daily nutritional intake.
March is National Nutrition Month®, and this year’s theme is “Bite into a Healthy Lifestyle.” Sponsored by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, this month-long nutrition education campaign focuses on showing you how to make informed food choices and promoting healthy eating and physical activity patterns to help you maintain a healthy weight, reduce your risk of chronic disease, and support your overall health. Be sure to check out their resources on food and health, and visit HPRC’s ABCs of Nutrition section too.