Filed under: Emotional support
Individuals involved in disasters and terrorist attacks often experience psychological trauma that needs both immediate and ongoing attention. In addition to getting medical first-aid to individuals, responders can also help administer psychological first aid (PFA). A few features from the VA’s Psychological First Aid: Field Operations Guide are:
- Ensure safety first. Physical needs (medical attention, food, and shelter) take priority. Before you begin PFA, assess whether these other needs have been taken care of. Remember to communicate clearly and be compassionate and polite as you come into contact with survivors.
- Stay calm and spread calm. Be patient and pay attention to survivors, who are often in emotional distress, as they convey their story. If they express confusion, reassure them that their behavior is a natural response to the circumstances and offer healthy ways to cope with it. And make sure that your own emotional and physical reactions are not making the situation worse.
- Connect with others. Help survivors connect with friends, family members, and other people who can support them. Relationships are invaluable to survivors during traumatic events.
- Encourage hope. Help calm fears or worries about the future by reminding survivors that help is on the way and will continue to be available in the future as they recover.
For more information, see the “dos” and “don’ts” in this fact sheet from the Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress. Also, download the free PFA mobile app, which supplements the PFA Field Operations Guide to help you administer psychological first aid in the field. Online training and videos are also available; see links on the web page linked above. For more information on healthy ways to cope, check out HPRC’s Mind Tactics domain.
Since the beginning of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom, approximately two million U.S. troops have deployed. The operational tempo associated with these conflicts has led to longer and more frequent deployments with fewer rest periods in between. The inevitable stress is a challenge for military and civilian communities, even as families work hard to reintegrate their families and normal routines.
In response to these ongoing demands, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff directed the development of the Total Force Fitness (TFF) initiative, a new Department of Defense model that focuses on the health, readiness, and performance of our Warfighters. (See the Total Force Fitness section of HPRC’s website for more information on this initiative.)
Following this initiative, a team of Joint-Service and DoD experts lead by COL Bowles of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS) came together to create a model that promotes family fitness, resilience, and optimal well-being for service members and their families. This model, which is still in development, is called The Military Family Fitness Model (MFFM).
The MFFM first examines stress-inducing demands placed on military and civilian families from sudden deployment and the return home. Then, looking to build on the resilience of the family, MFFM provides guidelines, skills, and resources for the individual, family, and community to protect against the negative effects of stress. As sources of stress increase, certain behaviors indicate the need for more support (e.g., family strife, children acting out, job instability for non-service members, family role conflict, non-supportive relationships outside the family, and/or domestic violence). With MFFM, families have individual, family, and community resources for additional support. The aim of the model is to foster a multi-level approach that strengthens family resilience and, as a result, Warfighter resilience.
Individual approaches to addressing stress include breathing exercises, yoga, mindfulness exercises, and cognitive restructuring. Family strategies include developing and maintaining strong communication skills, shared family routines, and the building of support networks. The bottom line of the MFFM is that at any point along the model, individuals, families, and communities can strengthen resilience resources to promote total family resilience and fitness.
Members of the MFFM team presented the Military Family Fitness Model at the USDA/DoD Family Resilience conference at the end of April. We encourage you to get more information on the conference presentation, read the abstract, and see the PowerPoint slides presented.