Filed under: Environment
Face paint has been used for many decades to blend the appearance of Warfighters’ exposed skin into their environments and protect them from the enemy. The American Chemical Society is taking a new approach to the traditional camouflage face paint by making it from a material that also can provide some protection from the heat wave of roadside bombs, IEDs, and other explosions on the battlefield. Thermal blasts last only a few seconds, but can cook the face, hands, and other exposed skin. The new face paint will protect exposed skin against temperatures reaching around 600 degrees Fahrenheit, for up to 60 seconds. The paint even incorporates the insect repellent DEET in a form that will not catch fire.
This new face paint is still in the testing stages, but already there are plans for a colorless form for use by men and women in other occupations—such as firefighters and other emergency responders—who are at risk of extreme heat exposure.
Heat illness is a hot topic for the military. Did you know there is a spectrum of conditions that fall under the term “heat illness,” some more severe than others? HPRC has great resources on how to prepare for exposure to hot environments and how to prevent heat illness. Read HPRC’s Answer to “What IS heat illness?” for more about what heat illness is and how to identify the signs that you might be developing more serious conditions.
On September 11, join an online webinar, Can You Hear Me? An Introduction to Hearing Loss Prevention, sponsored by the CDC, to discuss the primary causes of hearing loss, and learn how to prevent it. This educational event is free; however, there are a limited number of open lines, so log in early.
It’s always a good idea to replace old sunscreen, but next summer you’ll have even more reason to do so. Sunscreen companies have until December 2012 to revise their labels to abide by FDA’s new guidelines. The new labels will prevent manufacturers from false advertising with respect to the level of protection they provide. Sunscreens also will have to go through FDA’s testing to determine their effectiveness.
The new guidelines are summarized below:
Broad-spectrum designation: Sunscreens will have to pass FDA’s broad-spectrum test to be labeled as such. This confirms the sunscreen protects against both ultraviolet A and B rays, both of which contribute to skin cancer and early skin aging.
Use claim: Only broad-spectrum sunscreens with an SPF of 15 or higher can claim to reduce skin cancer risk and early skin aging if used as directed. Sunscreens with SPFs between 2 and 14 can claim only to help prevent sunburn.
Waterproof, sweatproof, and sunblock claims: Sunscreens will no longer be able to claim they are waterproof, sweat-proof, or “sunblock,” since those claims over-exaggerate their effectiveness. No sunscreen is waterproof or sweat-proof without the proper reapplication. Also, sunscreens do not “block” the sun; they reduce the penetration of the ultraviolet rays.
Water-resistance claims: Any sunscreen with a “water-resistant” label must indicate whether it is effective for 40 or 80 minutes while swimming or sweating.
Drug facts: All sunscreens must include standard drug-facts information on the label.
Even wonder why HPRC refers to the sections of its website as “domains”? They came from an initiative within the Department of Defense that’s outlined in a special issue of Military Medicine titled “Total Force Fitness for the 20th Century: A New Paradigm.” Experts identified eight “domains” of fitness that contribute to the optimal, overall fitness and preparedness of U.S. military forces. With some reorganization (and one exception – medical), these domains are represented on HPRC’s website—Physical Fitness, Environment, Nutrition, Dietary Supplements (originally part of nutrition), Mind Tactics (psychological, behavioral, and spiritual fitness), and Family and Relationships (family and social fitness)—along with a section on Total Force Fitness that addresses how these domains come together to create Human Performance Optimization (HPO) for our military service members.
Inhalation of major air pollutants has been found to decrease lung function and exacerbate symptoms of exercise-induced bronchospasms, including coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. In order to meet oxygen demands during light- to moderate-intensity exercise, you take in more air with each breath. And when you breathe through your mouth, you bypass the nose’s natural filtration of large particles and soluble vapors. As your exercise intensity increases, you breathe faster and deeper, which also increases the amount of pollution inhaled and the depth it travels into your respiratory system.
If you live in or near a busy city, you are exposed to even more combustion-related pollutants—such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM), and ozone—that can inflame your airways and worsen asthmatic responses. Exposure to freshly generated emissions is most common near areas of high vehicular traffic.
While indoor exercise is often a good alternative to limit exposure to outdoor pollutants, some indoor conditions may be just as toxic. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)—the more toxic NOx—is usually higher in gas-heated homes and indoor areas with poor ventilation. Carbon monoxide poisoning is also more likely to occur indoors. When carbon monoxide is in your system, the blood carries substantially less oxygen, reducing performance and eventually leading to carbon monoxide poisoning. Be sure to choose well-ventilated areas for indoor exercise.
Particulate matter and ozone are two significant pollutants you may be exposed to outdoors. Inhalation of high levels of particulates has been shown to reduce exercise performance as much as 24.4% during short-term, high-intensity cycling. Women may be more vulnerable than men to certain particulates, associated with greater decrements in performance. Ultrafine particle concentrations are highest in freshly generated automobile exhaust, and these small particles can be carried deep into the lungs. However, the further away you are from fresh exhaust, the less concentrated the particulates.
Bad ozone occurs lower in the atmosphere; it is not directly emitted into the air but is created from chemical reactions between NOx, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), heat, and sunlight. Ozone levels also are higher in summer than in winter; and especially in larger, hotter cities, concentrations tend to peak around midday when solar radiation is highest. Exposure to ozone during exercise has been found to increase resting blood pressure, reduce lung function, and decrease exercise capacity.
The risks associated with not exercising at all are far greater than the risks of exercising outdoors; it just takes a little more planning on days and in conditions when pollution is bad. When planning outdoor exercise activities, follow these tips to limit your exposure to pollutants:
- Avoid exercising in areas of heavy traffic, such as along highways and during rush hour.
- During summer, exercise earlier in the morning, when ozone levels and temperatures are not as high.
- Check the domestic or international air-quality ratings to determine if it’s safe to exercise outside. Limit your time outside on Code Red and Code Orange days. Environmental conditions on these days are not healthy, especially for children, the elderly, and people with existing respiratory conditions.
- Exercise indoors when the air quality indicates high ozone and particulate levels.
- Before any demanding physical activity, limit your carbon monoxide exposure by avoiding smoky areas and long car rides in congested traffic.
If you exercise in the cold, consider these tips from the American Council of Exercise (ACE; Exercising in the Cold) to stay safe. Check how cold it is before you go out, and do not exercise if the conditions are too extreme. Be sure to dress warmly (keep your head, hands, and feet warm) and dress in layers that can trap insulating dry air near your skin. In addition, avoid blowing air into your gloves and mittens because it will add moisture, which will cause your hands to be colder. For more detailed information, you can read the original American College of Sports Medicine position stand: prevention of cold injuries during exercise.
Warfighters are deployed to all kinds of environments, including hot and dry conditions where sun exposure is a concern. Choosing a "broad-spectrum" product that protects against sunburn, skin cancer, and premature skin aging is important, but product labeling can be confusing. Now, however, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is taking steps to regulate the labeling of sunscreen products in order to help consumers choose a product that will protect them from sun damage to the skin.
The new measures include a regulation, effective one year from now, that requires sunscreens to undergo a standard test if they want to be labeled as a “broad spectrum” product. Those that pass the test will be allowed to use “broad spectrum” on their packaging, which indicates a product that provides protection against both ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) and ultraviolet A radiation (UVA). UVB rays are primarily responsible for sunburn, but both UVA and UVB rays are harmful and can cause sunburn, skin cancer, and premature skin aging.
Other provisions in the FDA regulation include:
- A warning about the risk of skin cancer and early skin aging on the labels of sunscreen products that are not broad spectrum.
- The amount of time the consumer can expect protection from a product with water resistance claims must be stated on the front label. The FDA, based on standard testing, will allow either a 40-minute or 80-minute timeframe on labels.
- Products will no longer be allowed make a claim of “waterproof” or “sweatproof” or use the term “sunblock,” nor can they make the claim of immediate or instant protection or protection for more than two hours without reapplication.
Additional measures regarding the labeling of sunscreen products have been proposed. To learn more, view the FDA’s full article.
Heat-related injuries are a threat to Warfighters, even those in top physical condition, deployed to extreme environments. Heat acclimatization is necessary to ensure that the health and performance of Warfighters is not compromised to a dangerous degree when exposed to heat stress.
Take it slow. For unacclimatized Warfighters, physical exertion should be limited in intensity and time. Allow 9-14 days of progressive heat exposure and exertion—more for less-fit Warfighters, less for more-fit Warfighters.
Don’t overdo it; don’t underdo it! Heat acclimatization requires exposure at least two hours per day (can be two one-hour segments) while engaged in a cardiovascular exercise (which should increase in intensity each day of the acclimatization period).
It’s all relative. The level of heat acclimatization achieved is relative to the exertion normally expended by the Warfighter. If light exertion is the norm, the level of heat acclimatization after two weeks will match that. If more strenuous exertion is called for, additional acclimatization and possibly improved fitness is required.
Work smart. If Warfighters must perform physical work during the acclimatization period, take advantage of the cooler hours during the morning, evening, and night.
Stay hydrated. Adequate water is essential. Heat acclimatization increases sweating and, therefore, water requirements. Dehydration rapidly degrades safety and performance, even for those who are already heat acclimatized or in top physical condition.
For a more detailed look at heat stress and acclimatization, read HPRC’s reports on managing heat exposure.
Men and women in the military who operate in and around open water need protection against drowning and immersion syndrome. Quick response to cold-water immersion is important because of its immediate impact on the body. Immersion syndrome could cause cessation of breathing and/or cardiac arrest in certain people. Cold water causes a loss of heat much faster than cold air does and can quickly cause performance impairments such as not being able to fasten a life jacket or other safety equipment. Making an effort to tread water or swim only increases the body’s heat loss and hastens the onset of hypothermia.
A person alone can extend survival time by using body posture that covers areas especially vulnerable to heat loss. Those in the water should avoid movement and use the “heat-escape lessening posture” (H.E.L.P.). This posture minimizes the exposure to cold water of the individual’s groin and chest because the arms are folded across the chest and pressed to the sides and the knees are drawn up with the legs crossed at the ankles, creating a fetus-like position (see figure 13-6 in the article linked above for an illustration). Note that this technique does require the use of a personal floatation device that allows the knees to be drawn up.
If more than one person is involved, the “huddle position” should be used to reduce heat loss. In this position, individuals should press together their chests, abdomens, and groins. In addition to conserving each individual’s body heat, the huddle position helps prevent the swimmers from becoming separated before they are rescued, provides a larger rescue discovery target, improves morale, reduces shock and panic, and may reestablish a chain of command.
These survival techniques require practice and the use of personal flotation devices. Treading water in the H.E.L.P. position in heavy seas is a major challenge, and the huddle position requires that all participants be able to tread water, so being fit and prepared is essential.