Filed under: Healthy Tips
Our bodies know when to sleep thanks to “circadian rhythms,” which are regulated by our brains on a 24-hour cycle. Circadian rhythms are linked to core body temperature, so ideally you should always sleep between 0300 and 0500, when your core body temperature is lowest and your performance abilities are at their lowest. Keep in mind that your individual circadian schedule is based on where you are and takes cue from environmental factors such as the sun and from social patterns. When crossing time zones, your internal clock needs time to adjust, which can take several days. Factors that influence this adaptation are:
- how many time zones are crossed, and
- whether you fly eastward or westward—the former takes longer to adjust.
Keep in mind that, in order to make up sleep or to adjust to a new zone, the best times to sleep are between 0300-0500 or 1300-1500.
For tips on how to improve your quality or length of sleep check out HPRC’s Sleep Optimization section, and for information on how sleep loss impacts all of the areas of Total Fitness check out HPRC’s Overview on sleep loss.
Strong Bonds is a chaplain-led Army initiative that helps build relationship resilience. Through education and skills training, the Strong Bonds mission is to increase soldier and family readiness. Offsite retreat-style training addresses the effects of stress on military lifestyle, with programs tailored for single soldiers, couples, and families.
Visit HPRC's Military Family Skills for more information on military-specific strategies for building relationship resilience.
The FOCUS (Families OverComing Under Stress) Project provides online resilience training for military families affected by deployment. The project is designed to address parents’ and children’s concerns about military-combat stress injuries and combat-related physical injuries and provide helpful strategies to build family resilience.
Parents can watch videos, download handouts, and participate in private online chats with family members. FOCUS includes resources and tools for Warfighters, spouses, and professionals—and even activities children and teens can participate in. For more information, visit HPRC's section on Military Family Workshops/Programs.
Think about this: Not getting enough sleep has a serious impact on how and what you think—your memory and concentration suffer, as do your awareness of your surroundings and your reaction time. Sleep loss affects your ability to make good decisions and puts you on edge, making you susceptible to your emotions. There’s more: Sleep loss also affects your ability to think positively and solve problems effectively. All of these are key factors in managing stress. Making good decisions now reduces your stress over the long term, and this can be compromised when you’re not at your peak. Bottom line: Focus on getting enough sleep to help you manage your stress.
For more on how to get better sleep, check out HPRC’s Mind Tactics information on sleep management. For how sleep loss affects all the areas of fitness, check out the HPRC’s Total Force Fitness article on The impact of sleep loss on total fitness.
The cool-down—a practice so engrained in our exercise habits that we assume it’s important. But, the truth is, the topic is understudied, and evidence for or against cooling down is still up for debate. What is a cool-down and what is it supposed to do? The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommends a period of low- to moderate-intensity aerobic or muscular endurance activities after exercise to gradually reduce heart rate and blood pressure and remove metabolic byproducts from the system. For some, this may be a slow jog down the street, or an easy ride around the block after a workout with the hope of also preventing delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). The long-standing theory behind cooling down was that it helped to remove lactic acid from the system, a substance that could later cause muscle aches and soreness. However, it is believed that DOMS is the result of minor muscle damage due to novel or intense exercise, but we do know that lactic acid is not the culprit. During cool-down—active recovery—more lactic acid is removed from the system than during passive recovery, i.e., no cool-down. But is this a good thing? In a study of cyclists, researchers found that when subjects stopped exercise abruptly, lactic acid turned into glycogen, a fuel for the muscles. But when the cyclists gradually tapered off activity, less glycogen was made, leaving less energy for the muscles. These results indicate that cooling down might not be beneficial and may waste useful energy for the muscles.
On the other hand, a cool-down lowers elevated heart rates faster than passive recovery does and may prevent post-exercise dizziness. Stopping abruptly after exercise can cause blood to pool in the dilated vessels of the legs and feet, which may lead to a feeling of light-headedness and/or dizziness. Keep in mind, however, that these symptoms can also be related to other post-exercise conditions such as low blood sugar, low blood pressure, dehydration, or even hyponatremia. If you experience these symptoms, check with your doctor to find out if there are other causes.
Scientists agree that cooling down is also beneficial for people with cardiovascular conditions and heart disease where the coronary vessels are narrowed due to atherosclerosis (fatty deposits), as blood return to the heart may be compromised without it.
ACSM currently recommends at least 5-10 minutes of cool-down, with at least 10 minutes of stretching after exercise. However, more research is needed to determine the value and ideal recommendations for cooling down. If stopping exercise abruptly causes symptoms of light-headedness and dizziness, then a cool-down is a good idea.
Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) is a resilience-building program developed by the Army and based on 30 years of research in positive psychology and resilience building, also available for Air Force, Marines, Navy, and Coast Guard warriors. CSF is designed to give Warfighters and their families the knowledge, skills, and behaviors to help them thrive and successfully adapt to life’s challenges in this era of high operational tempo and persistent conflict.
Family resilience training modules help couples prepare for deployment and the post-deployment transition at home. These are available online for anyone to access. Although geared towards deployment and reintegration, the skills and strategies taught in the modules are relevant for families and relationships of those not currently deployed, as well.
For more information on CSF, visit HPRC's Total Force Fitness section.
Do you know about the CREDO program run by the Navy? This chaplain-run program is all about building individual and family resilience. CREDO offers a variety of one-day and weekend retreat-like events aimed at enriching the lives of participants and their relationships. CREDO provides Warfighters and their families an opportunity to build self-esteem and self-understanding, learn respect for themselves and others, accept responsibility for their lives, and develop a healthy spirituality.
If you are interested in finding out more about CREDO, check out HPRC’s Military Family Tools: Assessments & Online Workshops page, and visit HPRC's Military Family Skills for more information on military-specific strategies for families.
Although there are individual differences in sleep needs, most people need seven to eight hours of sleep at night to function optimally, and anyone who sleeps only four to five hours each night will experience some loss of performance. Sleep loss hinders your ability to accurately interpret the emotions of others and identify what they’re feeling. Specifically, sleep loss impacts your ability to interpret the emotions anger and happiness expressed in the faces of others, making it difficult to interact effectively and communicate clearly with the people around you, reducing one’s ability to maintain good relationships.
It’s been commonly thought that exercise can ward off the effects of sleep loss, but it turns out that exercise only mitigates sleepiness and fatigue for an hour and doesn’t seem to have any effect on boosting performance throughout the day. Although regular exercise—both strength training and high-intensity endurance—does help you sleep better, it can’t replace lack of sleep—only actual sleep will do that. The loss of sleep affects physical performance primarily by reducing your motivation to exercise—so, when thinking about your workout plan for the week, include a plan to get enough sleep.
For information on how to improve the quality and length of your sleep, check out HPRC’s Mind Tactics Sleep Optimization section. For information on how sleep loss impacts other areas of fitness, check out the HPRC’s Total Force Fitness article The impact of sleep loss on total fitness, and for information on physical fitness check out HPRC’s Physical Fitness domain.
It’s always a good idea to replace old sunscreen, but next summer you’ll have even more reason to do so. Sunscreen companies have until December 2012 to revise their labels to abide by FDA’s new guidelines. The new labels will prevent manufacturers from false advertising with respect to the level of protection they provide. Sunscreens also will have to go through FDA’s testing to determine their effectiveness.
The new guidelines are summarized below:
Broad-spectrum designation: Sunscreens will have to pass FDA’s broad-spectrum test to be labeled as such. This confirms the sunscreen protects against both ultraviolet A and B rays, both of which contribute to skin cancer and early skin aging.
Use claim: Only broad-spectrum sunscreens with an SPF of 15 or higher can claim to reduce skin cancer risk and early skin aging if used as directed. Sunscreens with SPFs between 2 and 14 can claim only to help prevent sunburn.
Waterproof, sweatproof, and sunblock claims: Sunscreens will no longer be able to claim they are waterproof, sweat-proof, or “sunblock,” since those claims over-exaggerate their effectiveness. No sunscreen is waterproof or sweat-proof without the proper reapplication. Also, sunscreens do not “block” the sun; they reduce the penetration of the ultraviolet rays.
Water-resistance claims: Any sunscreen with a “water-resistant” label must indicate whether it is effective for 40 or 80 minutes while swimming or sweating.
Drug facts: All sunscreens must include standard drug-facts information on the label.