Filed under: Injuries
Almost every Warfighter experiences pain at some point in his or her military career, but for many it can be a long or even chronic experience. Sometimes the treatment of pain is relatively straightforward, but at other times it needs a holistic treatment plan. And it’s no longer just a question of taking a pill. The DoD and VHA are exploring a range of alternative treatments for pain, including biofeedback, acupuncture, and various mind-body strategies that have been shown to be promising. HPRC’s new Pain Management section gives you an introduction to a variety of strategies you can do by yourself or with your doctor, and it points you to information and tools to help you understand and deal with your pain.
Water/pool workouts and swimming are great ways to give aching joints a break or recover from an injury and still get in a good workout. Exercising in the water provides the same aerobic fitness benefits as exercising on land. In fact, exercising in water may be less work for your heart; it pumps out more blood per beat, and heart rates are slightly slower. What’s more, pressure from the water speeds blood flow back to your heart, where your blood gets the oxygen that your muscles need during exercise.
Aquatic exercise is great for most people, including older and younger folks. Consider jumping in a pool to reduce stress and the risk for overuse injuries and as an alternative to your usual exercise routine.
When you’re in pain, any relief is welcome. The good news is that researchers have found pain can be managed and alleviated, to a degree, by employing strategies that have you put your focus elsewhere. Meditation is one such strategy. A recent small study examined the experience of pain from fourteen experienced meditators and fourteen inexperienced participants. It turns out that the old adage is true: Practice makes perfect. The experienced meditators experienced pain to a lesser degree and got used to the pain more quickly. They also registered less anxiety than the unpracticed participants. The message? Practicing meditation regularly may improve how your brain handles pain.
And tune in again later for HPRC’s new section in Total Force Fitness on pain management—coming soon.
In October 2012, students at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences participated in Operation Bushmaster at Fort Indiantown Gap, PA. The exercise involved a simulated combat environment to test the limits of their physical fitness as well as mental resilience. Military medical students were tasked with managing patient flow in an operational environment, such as tactical relocation over uneven terrain and dealing with changes in environmental conditions.
From a human performance optimization (HPO) standpoint, take-home points for the practical exercise included the importance of being physically fit, especially following guidelines for the prevention of back injuries, and implementing mental strategies for coping in high stress situations.
The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a tool used to evaluate how people move and identify patterns that could increase the risk of being injured. In a 2011 study conducted by the Consortium for Health and Military Performance (CHAMP), researchers found that FMS scores indicated an individual’s risk for injury. A summary of the most current information published on functional movement assessment demonstrates that the FMS is a reliable tool but that more research is needed. The upcoming CHAMP/HPRC conference will explore the role of functional movement assessment in preventing injury and enabling Warfighters to return to duty quickly, and will highlight areas for future research. Topics focus on the Warrior Athlete and civilian athletic communities, and include the epidemiology of musculoskeletal injuries, functional fitness and movement patterns, and current concepts in, as well as future research considerations for functional assessment tools.
For whatever reason, sometimes we get off track with our fitness regimens—maybe it was an injury, a move, or just life that intervened. Getting back to a peak level of fitness after time away should be done gradually. Injuries such as tendonitis—which could become a long term issue—can occur as a result of doing too much, too fast. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommends increasing duration (minutes of exercise) 5-10 minutes every one or two weeks over the first four to six weeks of an exercise program.
There are several risk factors for stress fracture development, but a 2011 article in Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise found that maintaining adequate muscle strength and flexibility in the hips, legs, knees, ankles, and feet is of great importance, especially for women. Here are some exercises from the American Council on Exercise that can help you build strength and flexibility:
Before beginning any exercise program, however, make sure to consult with a medical professional, especially if you are more than 45 years old.
The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons defines a stress fracture as a tiny crack in a bone that occurs when fatigued muscles lose their ability to absorb shock and then transfer stresses to the bone. Most stress fractures occur in the lower extremities, and more than half occur in the lower leg and foot.
A stress fracture is an overuse—sometimes referred to as chronic—injury, which means that it develops over a long period of time—from weeks to months. According to a 2011 systematic review published in Military Medicine, stress fracture incidence is high among U.S. military recruits, ranging anywhere from 3% for men to 9.2% for women.
Since it can take several weeks or months for a stress fracture to heal, the best approach is to avoid getting one. Here are some tips for prevention:
- Apply the progression principle of training—gradually increase your training intensity. Slowly incorporate higher-stress activities such as jumping and interval training into your workout. Setting incremental goals can be helpful in carrying out your training routine in a gradual way. And check out HPRC’s Physical Fitness Resources for more information on training and ways to avoid injury.
- Check your footwear and make sure it matches your training. Replace footwear that is old or worn.
- Pay attention to the surface where you train, since some are easier on the bones and joints of the lower extremities. For example, it is better to jog on softer surfaces such as rubber track or grass rather than on concrete. Also, it’s better to begin training on a flat surface and then progress to hills.
- Monitor your diet, specifically calcium and vitamin D intake, and read the National Institute of Health’s Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet on calcium. To learn more about nutrition take a look at HPRC’s Nutrition Resources.
The Los Angeles Times is reporting on how the Marine Corps has hired 27 certified athletic trainers—most with experience tending professional and college athletes—to oversee training for enlisted recruits and officer candidates at sites throughout the United States. According to the article, this is a new direction for the Corps: Not that long ago, the drill instructors might have dismissed recruits who complained of being injured and ordered them back into action.
To learn more about military recommendations for prevention of injuries related to physical training related, visit the HPRC’s Injury Management page and click on the link to read Recommendations for Prevention of Physical Training (PT)-Related Injuries.
Overuse injuries are a common risk associated with the rigors of physical training. A healthy tip to implement into your training program is to gradually increase your training workload by just 10% each week. This will help—but not guarantee—to reduce the risk of muscle or joint injury such as tendonitis or stress fractures caused by repetitive trauma. In essence, keep the progressive changes in your activity levels gradual, listen to your body, and make incremental adjustments in time and intensity until you reach your new fitness goals.