Filed under: Performance
Swimming is a wonderful way to improve overall fitness while minimizing your risk of injury. It’s easy on your joints and improves your cardiovascular fitness. Although training in a pool may not simulate your specific duties, cross-training reduces the risk of injury from other repetitive exercise such as running. Effective pool training sessions should vary in intensity and emphasis. To avoid shoulder joint and upper back issues, warm up by swimming for five to ten minutes at a pace slower than your usual training pace, and include kicking and pulling drills. To improve both strength and endurance in the water, try interval training. Shorter rest intervals will improve endurance, while longer ones will stress your anaerobic system and improve your strength and power. Alternating between aerobic (longer and slower) and anaerobic (shorter and more intense) workouts will optimize your overall performance for both combat swimming operations and cardiovascular fitness in general.
For more detailed information about pool interval training and examples of training regimens check out Chapter 4: Swimming for Fitness in The US Navy SEAL Guide to Fitness and Nutrition.
Calisthenics have long been a basic component of Warfighter training to increase strength. They require minimal equipment and space and can be done virtually anywhere. Common calisthenic exercises include push-ups, pull-ups, sit-ups, dips, and squats. They help develop and maintain muscle strength, endurance, and power as well as flexibility. There are many ways to customize a calisthenic routine to achieve a specific fitness goal. For example, performing a low number of repetitions with added resistance will effectively increase muscle strength. Training with a buddy is a great way to provide resistance. Muscle endurance, on the other hand, requires a routine with a lot of repetitions. It’s recommended to include two calisthenic sessions each week on nonconsecutive days, along with other forms of physical training (e.g., plyometrics, strength training, or aerobic training). A 30-minute calisthenic session should consist of one to three exercises that involve multiple muscle groups.
For more detailed information on calisthenics, go to Chapter 8 of The Navy SEAL Physical Fitness Guide.
Misinformation abounds regarding ideal nap lengths for optimal cognitive performance. You need sleep to function at your best. If you do not get the recommended seven to eight hours of sleep a night, then napping can help. Learn more in
Muscle strength is an essential component for successful Warfighter performance. Developing optimal muscle strength and endurance maximizes job performance and reduces risk of injury. The FITT principle can help you achieve this goal. FITT refers to “frequency, intensity, time (or duration), and type” of activity.
- Frequency is the number of sessions in a week that an individual trains. At least two days per week of strength training is recommended.
- Intensity, considered the most important aspect of strength and endurance conditioning, is defined by the amount of weight used per repetition. For muscle endurance, training should involve 20-60 repetitions of 30% to 50% of one repetition max (1RM; the maximum amount of weight one can lift for one repetition) per set. For muscle strength, training should involve 1-12 repetitions of 65% to 90% of 1RM per set.
- Time of sessions should range from 30 to 60 minutes.
- Type of exercise should vary in strength and conditioning routines to prevent boredom and improve gains. A combination of free weights and machines is recommended.
For more detailed information on strength training, read Chapter 6, Strength Training, of The Navy SEAL Physical Fitness Guide.
What has the Human Performance Resource Center (HPRC) been doing this past year to make our Warfighters safer? A lot! HPRC has a number of missions, but the most important one—and the one that all of HPRC’s other tasks support—is to provide evidence-based information on Human Performance Optimization (HPO). HPO involves giving our Warfighters the training and information they need to effectively carry out their missions in any environment, with the resilience to avoid injury and illness and the ability to recover quickly if injured or ill. As it turns out, HPO embodies all the domains of Total Force Fitness (TFF)—physical fitness, nutrition, dietary supplements, extreme environments, family/social issues, and psychological fitness—that ADM Mullen is asking the services to embrace.
Some of the accomplishments of HPRC this year are:
- Responding to questions from the field (mostly from Warfighters and providers) at the average rate of one per day and growing. These questions cover topics such as proper hydration, dietary supplement use, sleep requirements, managing altitude sickness, how to beat heat illness, and fitness fueling. Every question answered has the potential of protecting our Warfighters from inaccurate commercial information and harmful practices and of increasing their resilience.
- Overseeing a workgroup of subject matter experts (SMEs) who developed a white paper on High-Intensity Training that helps put in perspective the information available on these popular training programs. A scientific paper will be published in the near future.
- Overseeing the workgroup of SMEs who are developing the concept of Total Force Fitness for ADM Mullen, Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff.
- Developing and expanding a website that is now servicing more than a thousand people a week by supplying needed information on HPO and TFF.
- Supplying “healthy tips” to entities such as the Uniformed Services publication The Pulse and the Military Times.
- Partnering with multiple organizations across the services and DoD to help collaborate and coordinate efforts in HPO/TFF.
These examples provide a good snapshot of the activity level at HPRC. The staff and volunteer SMEs are working hard to make our Warfighters safer and more resilient to both physical and mental trauma. Who could ask for a better mission?
Research at USARIEM (U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine) was featured in a article by writer Christopher Solomon titled "G.I. Joe and the House of Pain" in a special issue of Outside Magazine about human performance. The author spent time in the research lab's heat chamber, altitude chamber, and cold-water pool—conditions that simulate the extreme environmental conditions found in theater. He interviewed research physiologists there about USARIEM's work over the past 50 years as well as its current studies, all of which address the crucial issues of Warfighter health and performance in extreme environments.
True total force fitness and overall well-being are crucial to Warfighter readiness and success, and awareness of this is now spreading like wildfire. Admiral Mullen’s Total Force Fitness Initiatives center on the importance of mind, body, family, and environment for overall Warfighter resilience.
There are numerous programs within the military designed to support and enhance Warfighter resilience – some unit specific and some branch or joint-service specific. The HPRC is in the process of gathering information on these myriad programs and highlighting those that are clearly evidence-based, that highlight the importance of mind-body integration, and that teach Warfighter-relevant skills and strategies for performance optimization.
Last week we added a section in our Total Force Fitness domain on the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program. We describe the program, give step-by-step information about its components, and highlight where to go for more information and program participation.
To give you a brief overview, CSF is an integrated Total Force Fitness (TFF) resilience-building program developed by the Army in collaboration with researchers in positive psychology and resilience building. CSF is designed to give Warfighters, their families, and their communities the knowledge, skills, and behaviors to “thrive in their lives” and successfully adapt to life’s challenges. Consistent with some of the components of Total Force Fitness identified by the DoD, CSF has five basic sectors: physical, social, emotional, spiritual, and family.
CSF was initially developed for the Army community, but it has now been adapted for use by the Air Force, Navy, and Marines. In addition, CSF provides training tools specifically designed for family members. Most of the training materials require AKO/DKO access, but the main exception is the family member materials, which are available for immediate download (with registration).
We hope that this new area of our website will be useful, help foster resilience in all, and provide a one-stop shop for previewing some resilience programs ongoing within the military.
According to a recent article in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, the National Sleep Foundation reported that more than one-third of adults in the United States are not sleeping enough, and inadequate sleep impairs daily tasks. Compared to those who reported sleeping 7-8 hours regularly, those who slept less than 7 hours reported significantly more trouble performing the daily tasks such as:
- Ability to concentrate
- Working on a hobby
- Driving or taking public transport
- Taking care of financial matters
- Performing at work.
Since injuries can occur in physically active individuals, here are a few tips to help you stay injury free:
- Warm-up and cool-down after exercise;
- Use proper form;
- Spread activity throughout the week, not just the weekend;
- Wear appropriate safety gear;
- Increase intensity and time gradually, and
- Cross train to prevent overuse injuries.
Click here for more information: Handout on Health. Sports Injuries. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease.
Photo: Department of Defense
Navy Times has an article that examines what the definition of a “military push-up” means to a soldier, sailor, airman and Marine.
Click on the link below to access the article.