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Filed under: Sports drinks

Revisiting the dangers of energy drinks

Energy drinks continue to be in the news, and their potential harmful effects should not be ignored, especially for children and teens.

HPRC has written several articles about energy drinks, their ingredients, and their potential harmful effects, especially for adolescents. They continue to be the topic of news articles, with another recent death of a teen who apparently consumed several energy drinks while on vacation and then died from cardiac arrest. The American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) urges the public to use caution when consuming energy drinks and lists many potential harmful reactions. Read more on this AAPCC web page, including statistics on reports of “exposures” to energy drinks.

HPRC has an Infosheet on energy drinks, highlighting the ingredients you may find on labels,and their potential stimulant effects. Be aware of the potential dangers, especially for children and teens, as outlined by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Crazy for coconut water?

HPRC Fitness Arena: Nutrition, Total Force Fitness
Coconut water is touted as a “natural” drink and a possible alternative for rehydration, but you may need additional nutrients during strenuous exercise.

Coconut water, the flavorful liquid found in young green coconuts, has become a popular drink. It is often promoted for a variety of ailments—from curing bad skin to resolving hangovers. But coconut water is also touted as a fluid replacement alternative. For this reason, some Warfighters choose coconut water over sports beverages because coconut water is “natural” and contains carbohydrates and key electrolytes such as sodium and potassium. However, not all brands of coconut water are created equal. In fact, they can vary considerably in terms of their nutrient content, so read product labels to be sure you’re getting the right amount of nutrients you need for optimal performance.

For example, the amount of carbohydrate and sodium in coconut water is sometimes very low, and individuals who participate in prolonged, vigorous exercise (longer than an hour) may need more carbohydrate and sodium. On the other hand, the potassium content of coconut water can be very high. Drinking a lot of coconut water (more than 8–10 servings in one day), especially if you eat potassium-rich foods such as bananas, can raise your body’s potassium levels too much, which can cause heart problems for some people. For more information about hydration needs, see HPRC’s article on fluids and exercise.

For periods of exercise less than one hour, water is always your best choice—about 7–10 ounces every 15–20 minutes. But for longer periods of exercise, sports beverages are a good choice because they are specially formulated to replenish carbohydrate, sodium, and potassium lost during extended and/or vigorous physical activity. Again, be sure to read the product label to make sure yours has what you need, and nothing more. If you choose sports beverages, drink three to eight ounces every 15–20 minutes to stay hydrated. For more information about proper hydration, read An Athlete’s Guide to Nutrient Timing.

And what about that coconut water? There simply isn’t enough evidence to support the use of coconut water as a remedy for any condition. And although it’s a tasty beverage, know what’s in it so you can replenish what your body needs—no more, no less.

What’s the “evidence” behind sports performance products?

Many advertisers of dietary supplements and other sports-related products make claims of enhanced performance and recovery, but a recent review found that the current evidence supporting these claims is mostly insufficient.

The dietary supplement and fitness industries are filled with sport drinks, powders, bars, pills, gels, footwear, clothing, and an array of devices all claiming to provide you with a competitive advantage, whether it be improved performance or enhanced recovery. With the ever-growing popularity of team and individual sports, professional and recreational athletes of all ages are an easy target for these claims. But how many of these claims are backed by evidence-based research?

A recent report now reviews the quality of evidence behind the claims of improved sports performance made by advertisers for a wide range of sports-related products, including sport drinks, supplements, footwear, and clothing. The team identified 431 performance-enhancing claims for 104 products advertised in more than 100 general, sport, and fitness magazines in the UK and U.S. for a single month in 2012. They found that more than half of the advertisements and their associated websites provided no evidence to support the claims of enhanced sports performance. Only 146 references were found, and only 74 of these met basic criteria for research quality and almost all of the 74 were found likely to be biased or lacking scientific objectivity. Only three studies were rated as “high” quality and probably unbiased. Such lack of evidence makes it very difficult for consumers to make well-informed decisions about using performance-enhancing sports products.

This review makes it clear that many of the claims made for sports and fitness products lack reliable evidence to support them and that more and better studies are needed to help inform consumers. In the meantime, consumers should be cautious when reading claims of enhanced performance and recovery and always remember that “true” evidence-based results mean that a substantial number of independent research studies have been performed, with findings that clearly support the claims made by advertisers. Presently, there is still no substitute for sound physical conditioning and nutrition practices.

For more information on dietary supplements and how to choose supplements safely, please visit Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS). For information on physical fitness and conditioning, please explore HPRC’s Physical Fitness domain. The original British Medical Journal open-access article is available online.

Energy drinks and adolescents

Energy drink use by adolescents is on the rise, and misuse of these beverages may stem from confusion about using energy drinks for rehydration.

Energy drinks are marketed to improve physical and mental performance, mainly to “boost energy.” Adolescents are getting hold of energy drinks more often, in part due to heavy marketing of sports drinks with athletic superstars, causing adolescents to confuse energy drinks for sports drinks. Energy drinks contain large amounts of caffeine and other stimulants, while sports drinks contain carbohydrates and electrolytes and are intended for use when athletes (including adolescents) are engaged in prolonged, vigorous exercise. Adolescents have already had problems combining energy drinks and alcohol, which has led to risky behavior. The American Academy of Pediatrics has guidelines for the use of energy drinks and sports drinks by adolescents.

Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS) has now been launched to answer many of your questions about Dietary Supplements. Visit the OPSS section of HPRC’s website now to learn more!

Adolescents and sports drinks

For most active children and adolescents, staying hydrated is easy—drink water.

Does your child like sports drinks? A recently released report—Consumption of Sports Drinks by Children and Adolescents—states that sports drinks are not recommended for children and adolescents when engaged in normal levels of physical activity. The report’s review of research concluded that sports drinks, when consumed in limited quantities, are mainly for those participating in vigorous physical activity lasting longer than an hour. For the vast majority of children and adolescents, drinking water before, during, and after exercise is adequate for proper hydration. See also the “Issue Brief” that describes the key points of their research.

Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS) is about to launch this summer and will answer many of your questions about Dietary Supplements. Watch for HPRC’s announcement coming soon.

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