Filed under: Supplements
It’s cause for concern: Approximately 30% of teens consume energy drinks on a regular basis. Energy drinks provide no nutritional benefit and can actually pose health risks to adolescents, including increased heart rate, high blood pressure, anxiety, digestive problems, sleep disturbances, dehydration, and even death. Teens who consume energy drinks are also more likely to engage in unhealthy behaviors such as drinking more sugar-sweetened beverages, smoking cigarettes, and using drugs and alcohol.
Many of the negative effects associated with energy drinks are due to the large amounts of stimulants in these beverages. Their caffeine content can range from 50 to more than 500 mg per can or bottle. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children and teens:
- consume no more than 100 mg of caffeine per day (equal to about 2 cans of caffeine-containing soda or one 8 oz. cup of coffee) and
- avoid energy drinks altogether.
However, the amount of caffeine teens consume from energy drinks is trending upwards, in part due to heavy marketing with celebrity athletes. Be sure to talk to your teens about the potential problems associated with energy drinks, and make sure they don’t confuse them with sports drinks.
Whole foods, not dietary supplements, should be your first choice for protein. Protein supports muscle growth and repair. People often turn to protein supplements (such as whey, casein, and soy) to optimize those effects, especially after a workout. Whole food protein sources such as lean meats, fish, dairy products, legumes, nuts, and seeds are just as effective (in some cases more effective) than protein supplements. Whey protein products can be an acceptable, convenient, and efficient way to deliver protein when your needs are greater or when normal dietary sources are not available. If you are using protein supplements, be sure to choose a product that has been third-party evaluated for its quality. Read more here.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is again warning about the dangers of powdered pure caffeine. At least 2 deaths (both teenagers) were associated with it in 2014, yet it continues to be sold, primarily in bulk online. FDA recently sent warning letters to 5 distributors of pure powdered caffeine, warning about potential serious health effects. FDA notes that it’s difficult to determine the difference between a safe amount and a toxic amount but that one teaspoon is roughly equivalent to 28 cups of coffee. For more information, read FDA’s update and HPRC’s 2014 article.
Searching for reliable information about dietary supplements and don’t know where to go? Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS) has answers for you. OPSS has a comprehensive “Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)” section with subcategories about general and miscellaneous topics, dietary supplement ingredients, performance, and weight loss. Or if you’re an educator and need some videos or short PSAs, click on “Tools for Warfighters,” and then search the “Video” tab. We also have materials that can be printed for distribution or ordered through the USAPHC Health Information Products e-catalog.
Didn’t find what you’re looking for while in OPSS? Use our Ask the Expert button located on the OPSS home page.
Conventional foods and dietary supplements follow different rules when it comes to labeling, but the difference between the two isn’t always black and white. Such is the case with protein powders. If you look closely at various protein powders, you may notice that some are labeled with Nutrition Facts (required for foods), while others have Supplement Facts (required for supplements). So are protein powders conventional foods or dietary supplements? Read more in our OPSS FAQ on protein powder labels.
For more answers to common questions we’ve received about dietary supplements, please visit our Operation Supplement Safety FAQs.
Stimulants can be dangerous to your health, especially in large quantities, but they’re what give energy drinks their “punch.” You may already know caffeine is a major stimulant found in energy drinks. But do you know that energy drinks often contain other stimulants? These can include “hidden sources” of caffeine (such as guarana, green coffee bean, green tea, and yerba mate), yohimbe, and synephrine (bitter orange).
Many energy drinks, however, aren’t labeled with the amounts of caffeine or other stimulants in them. Some or all of these ingredients are often part of “proprietary blends,” so it’s impossible to determine from the label the exact amount of each ingredient you would be taking. Furthermore, energy drinks might be mislabeled or marketed as sports drinks, causing even more confusion.
Remember, stimulants come in many different forms, so Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS) put together a list of stimulants found in dietary supplements to help you identify these potentially harmful ingredients. And to help you understand what’s in your energy drink, check out the OPSS infosheet on energy drink labels, which includes helpful notes about ingredients.
High-risk dietary supplements are those that may present serious health risks. Many have been found to contain undeclared drug ingredients, steroids, steroid-like ingredients, and/or stimulants, which can have negative and dangerous side effects. Products most commonly “tainted” in this way are those marketed for bodybuilding, performance enhancement, weight loss, sexual enhancement, and diabetes. Such products may also result in a positive drug test. For more information, read FDA’s Consumer Update “Tainted Products Marketed as Dietary Supplements.” For more information about urinalysis and drug testing, read HPRC’s “Dietary supplements and drug testing."
In addition, you can visit the OPSS High-Risk Supplement List for information about certain dietary supplements that may pose a health or sport anti-doping risk.
For more Frequently Asked Questions about dietary supplements, visit the Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS) FAQs.
Diatomaceous earth (DE) is a powder composed of fossilized algae called “diatoms.” Diatoms are single-celled organisms found in bodies of water, and DE is used commonly for various reasons: 1) a natural insecticide; 2) an anti-caking agent; and 3) a clarifier for wine and beer. However, some people add food grade DE to their food and beverages because DE is a rich source of silicon dioxide. Silicon is a chemical element that occurs naturally as silicon dioxide in many foods, such as whole grains and vegetables.
Proponents of DE suggest that the high silicon dioxide content helps with weight loss, detoxification/cleansing, energy levels, joint pain, teeth and gums, cholesterol and blood pressure, and food absorption. Consumers and some retailers of DE supplements also claim that its abrasive (scratchy/rough) and absorptive properties improve digestive health by ridding the intestines of bacteria and parasites as well as regulating bowel movements.
There is not enough research to support these claims, and the biological role of silicon in humans is uncertain, so there is no recommended intake or DRI (Dietary Reference Intake). According to Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, silicon is safe to consume in amounts commonly found in foods, but insufficient scientific evidence is available for its effectiveness and safety as a dietary supplement.
For more answers to common questions we’ve received about dietary supplements, please visit our Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS) FAQs.
Redotex is a drug manufactured in Mexico and being sold in the U.S. as a weight-loss product. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) it is a misbranded drug and is not legal to sell as either a drug or a dietary supplement. It is not permitted for use by DoD personnel or civilians.
According to the FDA Import Alert, “it appears to be a new drug without an approved New Drug Application…” In addition, it contains a combination of thyroid, diuretic, stimulant, and tranquilizer drugs that may cause serious and potentially fatal adverse reactions. In addition to posing a health hazard, the product contains a DEA Controlled Substance that will cause a positive drug test. It is very important to read product labels, and if the label is not in English or contains any of the drug ingredients listed in the FDA Alert, steer clear, as it is an illegal product.
For more answers to questions we’ve received about weight-loss dietary supplements, please visit our Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS) FAQs.
BMPEA is an unapproved amphetamine-like substance that has been appearing in some dietary supplement products. BMPEA (also known as β-methylphenylethylamine, R-beta methylphenylethylamine, beta-methylphenethylamine, and others) was first made in the 1930s as a possible replacement to amphetamine (a central nervous system stimulant), although it never became a drug because human studies on safety were not performed.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tested 21 supplement products with the ingredient Acacia rigidula listed on the label and found that 9 of the 21 products were found to contain BMPEA, which is not derived from the plant Acacia rigidula. Some dietary supplement products actually list BMPEA on their labels. FDA recently issued a warning stating, “…BMPEA does not meet the statutory definition of a dietary ingredient.” Therefore, dietary supplement products with BMPEA are misbranded and cannot be sold as dietary supplements.
The World Anti-Doping Agency has banned BMPEA. For more answers to questions we’ve received about ingredients in dietary supplements, please visit our Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS) FAQs.