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Are you at risk for Female Athlete Triad?

Learn how the Female Athlete Triad affects health and performance and how you can prevent it.

The Female Athlete Triad is a health condition that commonly affects physically active girls, teens, and women, especially those involved in activities that have a heavy emphasis on weight and physical appearance. It’s characterized by energy deficiency, amenorrhea (menstrual disturbances), and osteoporosis (bone loss), which can leave you tired, anxious, and unmotivated—an equation for poor performance. It can also put you at risk for serious health problems such as muscle loss, dehydration, and stress fractures.

Female service members can be at risk for developing the Triad if they don’t get enough calories (underfueling) and if training is too intense. But you can prevent it easily by focusing on your overall health and nutrition rather than your weight and by following these tips:

  • Eat when you’re hungry and include a variety of nutrient-rich foods such as lean sources of protein—lean fish, poultry, beans, nuts, and low-fat dairy products—along with whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. Skipping meals and snacks or severely restricting your food intake will keep you from getting enough calories and other important nutrients such as protein, vitamins, and minerals.
  • Eat a recovery snack that consists of carbs and protein after your workout. Carbs are your body’s primary fuel source to keep you energized, and you need protein to build and repair your muscles.
  • Talk to a registered dietitian (RD) for an individual nutrition plan. An RD who specializes in sports nutrition can help you choose the best foods and the right amounts to optimize your performance.

Remember, food is the fuel that helps you to perform at your best. For more, read this handout from the Female Athlete Triad Coalition.

Get motivated to exercise through friends

October is the MHS’s Women’s Health Month! Invite a girlfriend to exercise with you and help each other stay motivated.

Listen up, ladies! Women are more likely to engage in physical activity if they do it as part of a group and if they have friends who are active. Whether you’re looking for a group exercise class, a spotter for strength training, or a partner to join you on your run, social support from friends or family increases your chances of sticking to an exercise plan.

Women also enjoy activities more when they’re done with others instead of alone. Feeling better about a workout leads to more minutes of exercise per week too. Surround yourself with others who want to stay fit and have similar goals. You can decide whether you want to join an organized exercise group or keep it small and informal by asking one of your friends to participate in an exercise routine. Either way, get motivated!

For more about Women’s Health Month, visit the Military Health System website during October.

Moms-to-be: exercise for a healthier birth

There are many benefits of continuing to exercise while pregnant. Now you can add healthier birth weights and a reduced chance of C-section to the list!

Exercise leading up to and during pregnancy has many health benefits. Recently, the effects of exercising during pregnancy have been found to benefit the birth process as well. Regular exercise with pregnancy can contribute to a healthy birth weight for your baby without increasing the risk of premature birth. It may even decrease the risk of needing an unscheduled cesarean birth. For these reasons, continuing your exercise routine could help you have a healthier and safer birth. Staying active contributes to a healthier pregnancy. It also helps you maintain a healthy weight and establishes exercise habits that, if continued after your baby is born, help you get rid of the weight gained during pregnancy. There are many ways to keep up with your physical fitness during pregnancy while still keeping you and your baby safe.

Postpartum exercise

How soon can you start to exercise after giving birth?

The benefits of exercise in the postpartum period (six to eight weeks after delivery) include decreased physical, mental, and general fatigue, in addition to improved fitness and motivation. It may even reduce depression, as long as the exercise relieves stress rather than provokes it.

Some women who exercise during their pregnancy and immediately resume exercise after giving (vaginal) birth aren’t at risk for post-partum complications (such as excessive or prolonged bleeding, uterine inversion, or infection). However, most women don’t meet the recommendations for exercise during pregnancy, so when you do resume exercise, you should do so gradually.

You may be concerned that exercise could decrease your milk supply; however, exercising women who drink enough fluid (stay hydrated) and eat enough to meet their caloric needs continue to produce enough breast milk. Composition of breast milk remains the same with moderate exercise intensity, but vigorous exercise can cause lactic acid to appear in the milk, which could affect how well your baby accepts your milk. Consider nursing before participating in vigorous exercise.

Returning to physical activity after giving birth depends on the individual. Be sure to discuss your exercise habits and plans with your doctor before resuming your regular workout routine. Visit this web page from The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists to learn more about exercise in the postpartum period. Stay healthy for you and your baby!

Woman up for Women’s Health Month

HPRC Fitness Arena: Nutrition
October is Women’s Health Month. Women have some health issues that men don’t. Check out some special nutritional needs.

The month of October is Military Health System’s Women’s Health Month. There are more than 350,000 female members of the military (16% of the total military force). While it’s important for all military members to consume nutritious diets, women have special nutrient needs: iron, folic acid, and calcium.

Iron. Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency among women. Poor dietary intake of iron combined with intense physical activity can lead to fatigue, weakness, and pale skin—all signs of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA). Iron-rich foods include meat, poultry, fish, spinach, beans, and fortified cereals. Consume these foods with vitamin C–rich foods such as strawberries and oranges for better iron absorption. HPRC discusses other reasons for IDA in this article on “Iron deficiency.”

Folic acid. Women of childbearing age need enough folic acid to reduce the risk of birth defects. But even if you’re not pregnant, folic acid helps make blood cells that boost your immune system. Folic acid can be found in leafy green vegetables, beans, peas, and fortified cereals and bread.

Calcium. Compared to men, women are at greater risk for osteoporosis, in which bones become weak and are more likely to break. Women need to start getting more calcium at an early age to keep bones strong. Calcium-rich foods include low-fat dairy products, tofu, kale, and fortified cereals and juices. Vitamin D is also important to help the absorption of calcium. Read more about vitamin D in HPRC’s Vitamin D, the sunshine vitamin.”

All of these nutrients can be found in supplement form, but as with any dietary supplement, consult your doctor first to determine if they are necessary and safe. For more information on supplements, read HPRC’s “Women's health and dietary supplements.” Remember, most people can achieve adequate intake of these nutrients with a balanced diet. Poor nutrition puts you at risk for injuries and makes it harder for you to perform at your best.

If you’d like to know more about women’s health, visit the Military Health System's web page.

Happy Mother’s Day!

Happy Mother’s Day from HPRC!

HPRC salutes Mother’s Day with special recognition of the mothers of Warfighters, mothers who are Warfighters, and Warfighters’ spouses who are mothers. HPRC works to help keep you and your Warfighter healthy, happy, and fit so that every day is Mother’s Day!

Women in Combat Symposium

HPRC Fitness Arena: Total Force Fitness
The Women in Combat Symposium is a forum for the key issues that women face as they continue to be integrated into combat roles.

The Defense Health Agency and Uniformed Services University are co-hosting a “Women in Combat Symposium” at the Defense Health Headquarters (DHHQ) in Falls Church, Virginia, April 29–May 1. Experts from various Department of Defense organizations and branches will present research and hold panel discussions on the physical, psychological, and social aspects of performance, leadership, health, and well-being.

The event is only open to federal employees, federal contractors, and active-duty military supporting this work. Participants also have the option to attend the event online in a virtual environment. is the online platform for the symposium. Whether attending in person or virtually, all participants must first register with and then join the WIC group to be able to register for the event. Select the “registration” tab on the “Women in Combat Symposium” page on

New website supports Air Force moms-to-be

The Air Force recently launched a new website for the moms-to-be in their ranks.


The Air Force recently launched a new website to support pregnant Airmen: Pregnancy A to Z. It provides information from real parents and physicians through videos that provide tips for the first trimester all the way through to delivery and post-partum. Check out the exercise library too—keeping fit while you’re pregnant is essential for a healthy pregnancy and an easy recovery. And the site isn’t just for moms. Dads-to-be will find helpful information as well.

For more information, check out HPRC’s website for military-specific pregnancy resources, exercising when you are pregnant, and getting fit after giving birth.

Strong enough for a Warfighter, and made for a woman

HPRC Fitness Arena: Environment, Total Force Fitness
Filed under: Armor, Army, Combat, Women
Testing of new female body armor is taking place this summer. Changes to the design will decrease the total weight a female Warfighter carries.

Although a limited amount of new-generation body armor specifically designed for women is already in theater, field tests will take place in July and August on 600 sets of this armor for female soldiers. These tests are part of the Army’s Rapid Fielding Initiative in which they roll out cutting-edge equipment for soldiers. This important development is just one change that is needed if women are to enter additional military occupational specialties, including front-line roles in ground combat. (The ban on women in combat was lifted in January of 2013.)

A noted feature of the new body armor is the decrease in weight from 31 to 25 pounds, which can reduce pressure on muscles and bones, possibly reducing musculoskeletal injuries. In addition, because there’s less friction and chaffing, the body armor is more comfortable. Even more important, though, the new armor addresses complaints from women that poor-fitting body armor restricts movement needed to carry out operations such as raising and firing a rifle.

Check out this PowerPoint for additional information on the Improved Outer Tactical Vest (IOTV), including improvements and capabilities.

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