Filed under: Safety
West Nile. Dengue. Malaria. Chikungunya. No, that’s not a typo. Chikungunya (pronounced “chik-en-gun-ye”), a mosquito-borne virus that primarily occurs in Africa, Asia, and the Indian subcontinent, and Warfighters deployed to these regions have been exposed to this risk for some time, now, however, it is reportedly spreading to Europe and the Americas. Most of the cases in the U.S. involve individuals who have recently traveled abroad, but the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) just reported the first locally acquired case, in Florida.
The viral illness is characterized by fever and severe joint pain, but other symptoms include headache, muscle pain, joint swelling, and rash. There is currently no antiviral drug for Chikungunya, and treatment is aimed at relieving symptoms. Most patients will recover fully on their own, although sometimes symptoms persist for several months.
It’s important to know your environment. If you’re being deployed to these regions or even going there on vacation, there are things you can do to protect yourself from mosquito bites and mosquito-borne infections. Wearing long pants, shirts with long sleeves, and insect repellent while outdoors reduces the chance of an insect bite. Other precautions include removing standing water from containers such as flowerpots and buckets and placing screens over open windows and doors.
If you think you could have been infected, you should see your doctor, especially if you have recently traveled to high-risk regions. Visit the Center for Disease Control (CDC) for more information about Chikungunya.
Dietary supplements with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are being marketed to help with weight loss. What is CLA and can it really help you lose weight? Read HPRC’s new Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS) FAQ about CLA to find out.
While you’re there, check out our other OPSS FAQs. Still can’t find the answer you’re looking for? You can visit the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database or use our “Ask the Expert” button located on the OPSS home page.
You’ve probably seen the pictures on social media and in the news: a very pregnant woman, with a heavy barbell on her shoulders, mid squat, in an Olympic powerlifting move. But is it safe for mother and baby? If this is a situation you might find yourself in, and/or you’ve talked to your doctor about a pregnancy exercise regimen, there are some things you should know about weight lifting and exercise. Read HPRC’s “Lifting weights during pregnancy” for more information.
Inhalation of major air pollutants has been found to decrease lung function and exacerbate symptoms of exercise-induced bronchospasms, including coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. In order to meet oxygen demands during light- to moderate-intensity exercise, you take in more air with each breath. And when you breathe through your mouth, you bypass the nose’s natural filtration of large particles and soluble vapors. As your exercise intensity increases, you breathe faster and deeper, which also increases the amount of pollution inhaled and the depth it travels into your respiratory system.
If you live in or near a busy city, you are exposed to even more combustion-related pollutants—such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM), and ozone—that can inflame your airways and worsen asthmatic responses. Exposure to freshly generated emissions is most common near areas of high vehicular traffic.
While indoor exercise is often a good alternative to limit exposure to outdoor pollutants, some indoor conditions may be just as toxic. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)—the more toxic NOx—is usually higher in gas-heated homes and indoor areas with poor ventilation. Carbon monoxide poisoning is also more likely to occur indoors. When carbon monoxide is in your system, the blood carries substantially less oxygen, reducing performance and eventually leading to carbon monoxide poisoning. Be sure to choose well-ventilated areas for indoor exercise.
Particulate matter and ozone are two significant pollutants you may be exposed to outdoors. Inhalation of high levels of particulates has been shown to reduce exercise performance as much as 24.4% during short-term, high-intensity cycling. Women may be more vulnerable than men to certain particulates, associated with greater decrements in performance. Ultrafine particle concentrations are highest in freshly generated automobile exhaust, and these small particles can be carried deep into the lungs. However, the further away you are from fresh exhaust, the less concentrated the particulates.
Bad ozone occurs lower in the atmosphere; it is not directly emitted into the air but is created from chemical reactions between NOx, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), heat, and sunlight. Ozone levels also are higher in summer than in winter; and especially in larger, hotter cities, concentrations tend to peak around midday when solar radiation is highest. Exposure to ozone during exercise has been found to increase resting blood pressure, reduce lung function, and decrease exercise capacity.
The risks associated with not exercising at all are far greater than the risks of exercising outdoors; it just takes a little more planning on days and in conditions when pollution is bad. When planning outdoor exercise activities, follow these tips to limit your exposure to pollutants:
- Avoid exercising in areas of heavy traffic, such as along highways and during rush hour.
- During summer, exercise earlier in the morning, when ozone levels and temperatures are not as high.
- Check the domestic or international air-quality ratings to determine if it’s safe to exercise outside. Limit your time outside on Code Red and Code Orange days. Environmental conditions on these days are not healthy, especially for children, the elderly, and people with existing respiratory conditions.
- Exercise indoors when the air quality indicates high ozone and particulate levels.
- Before any demanding physical activity, limit your carbon monoxide exposure by avoiding smoky areas and long car rides in congested traffic.
Last summer the Netherlands removed the weight-loss dietary supplement product Dexaprine from the market due to reports of serious adverse events, but the results of research into the cause has just been released. A recent article in Drug Testing and Analysis described at least 26 cases of Dexaprine toxicity reported to the Dutch Poisons Information Center. Testing revealed the existence of “a cocktail of synthetic stimulants” including synephrine, oxilofrine, deternol, yohimbine, caffeine, and theophylline, and possibly ß-methyl-ß-phenylethylamines. (Problematic forms of phenylethylamines, including ß-methylphenylethylamine. were discussed in an April 2014 article in the New England Journal of Medicine.) For more information about tainted weight-loss dietary supplements, see the Food and Drug Administration’s information. Note that this product is still available in the U.S. and online.
When something sounds too good to be true, it probably is. Dietary supplements are popular among military personnel, and it’s important to be able to spot the red flags—warning signs of potential problems—when considering a product. Read the OPSS FAQ on how to spot these red flags to help make an informed decision. And be sure to check back often for new FAQs.
HPRC presents its shortest list to date of still-available Dietary Supplements/Products Containing DMAA! Since our last update in December 2013, 20 more products have been discontinued or reformulated to remove DMAA, and even more have disappeared from Internet retail sources altogether. Currently, we have found only 41 products (out of more than 200 once on the list) that still appear to be in manufacture, in many cases from non-U.S. sources.
Since its April 2013 announcement that DMAA is illegal as a dietary supplement ingredient, FDA has cracked down on manufacturers and suppliers in the U.S. As an example, an FDA News Release last November highlighted the seizure of more than $2 million in products from a single company. For more about DMAA from FDA, read their “DMAA in Dietary Supplements” web page.
Have you found yourself checking your phone while driving? Is it more than just occasionally? Driving while distracted is simply unsafe. According to the official U.S. government website (see link below), distracted driving “is any activity that could divert a person’s attention away from the primary task of driving”—such as texting, using a cell phone, checking your hair or makeup, shaving, brushing your teeth, or just talking to your passengers. The “most alarming distraction,” according to their site, is texting, and they give an example of how it makes you blind to the road for the entire length of a football field. According to the Department of Defense Instruction 6055.04 (April 20, 2009; Incorporating Change 2, January 23, 2013), all drivers should refrain from text messaging, using cell phones, or using other hand-held electronic devices unless the vehicle is safely parked or the person is using a hands-free device. This regulation is for everyone’s safety, so put your phone away. Keep your eyes on the road and don’t drive distracted. For more information, including frequently asked questions, check out distraction.gov.
Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS) is a joint military initiative between the Human Performance Resource Center (HPRC) and the Department of Defense (DoD) to educate service members and retirees, their family members, leaders, healthcare providers, and DoD clinicians about dietary supplements and how to choose them wisely.
OPSS has partnered with Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (NMCD) to provide all DoD personnel with access to evidence-based information on dietary supplements, including Natural Medicines Brand Evidence-based Ratings (NMBER)®.
Now there is an Operation Supplement Safety & Natural Data (OPSS & ND) app available that can help you make an informed decision by giving you:
- Dietary supplement safety and effectiveness (NMBER) ratings.
- Interaction ratings between drugs and natural medicines, known as “adverse reactions.”
- Effectiveness ratings for natural medicines by medical condition and more.
To access the app you must first visit HPRC’s link to NMCD and sign up for your free account. Click on the Warfighter version and use your valid .mil email address. Once you’ve created your free account you will have access to the full version of the app. Up-to-date reviews of commercially available products, Natural Medicines Brand Evidence-based Ratings (NMBER)® for commercially available products, an Effectiveness Checker, and more will be at your fingertips.
If you have questions, please use the “Ask the Expert” button on the OPSS home page.
Two versions of OxyELITE Pro have been removed from the market in the past year. Read the Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS) FAQ to find out why, and to get more information from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Also, be sure to check back often, as we add answers to other questions about ingredients in performance-enhancing and weight-loss supplements and how to choose supplements safely.
If you have more questions about a particular dietary supplement ingredient or product, please use our “Ask the Expert” button located on the OPSS home page.