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New article on reporting side effects of supplements
Just published in The New England Journal of Medicine: A recent article brings up dietary supplement issues you need to be aware of and discusses how dietary supplement side effects could be monitored better. A PDF of the April 3rd article is available free online.

3rd International Congress on Soldiers’ Physical Performance
August 18-21, 2014
The ICSPP delivers innovative scientific programming on soldiers’ physical performance with experts from around the world.

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Performance Triad

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Filed under: Fitness

Tunes and training

Do you listen to music when you exercise? Find out how it affects your workout.

Do you exercise to music? If you do, you might have noticed that you run faster when a fast-paced, upbeat tune comes on.

Exercise scientists noticed the relationship between exercise and music some time ago. For those of us who aren’t trained athletes, music can have a huge effect on our performance and mood during exercise. Without realizing it, people push themselves harder during exercise when listening to fast-tempo music, which increases heart rate as well as speed, endurance, and in some cases the rate of perceived exertion. Exercisers also feel an improved sense of well-being when working out to music.

So why is it you prefer certain songs when you’re exercising? One explanation suggests that a part of your brain tries to match the movement of your body to the beat of the music. In fact, scientists have found that when you listen to music with about 125–140 beats per minute, both your heartbeat and your movements synchronize to work at the most energy-efficient, optimal level for exercise. In essence, music works with your brain to coordinate your bodily functions and optimize your workout.

The best workout songs seem to share certain characteristics:

  • 125-140 beats per minute during exercise; slower for warm-ups, cool-downs, and for some endurance-type exercises
  • A motivational or upbeat message
  • Familiar tunes or a preferred style of music
  • A tempo that matches the rhythm of your exercise

Ask your buddies about their workout playlists too. They might have something totally different to offer—a new beat to stay fit with.

For more tips on how to optimize your workout, explore HPRC’s Physical Fitness domain.

Performance Triad update

The U.S. Army rolled out the Performance Triad a few months ago. So, what’s new?

The Performance Triad is well underway, and the Army has been closely monitoring the progress of soldiers at the three test sites (Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Fort Bliss, and Fort Bragg). Soldiers will be assessed on their knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes about the parts of the triad—sleep, activity, and nutrition. Triad staff is currently performing injury-risk assessments for the Military Power, Performance, and Prevention (or “MP3”) program as part of an ongoing process that helps get soldiers into physical therapy and strength-training programs to help reduce the number of “medically not ready soldiers.” You can read more about the Performance Triad in HPRC’s Total Force Fitness domain.

A holistic approach to performance

Check out the customizable “One Shot One Kill” (OSOK) performance enhancement program to jumpstart your performance.

Wanting some holistic strategies to enhance your performance? Check out the “One Shot One Kill (OSOK) Performance Enhancement Program” that shows Warfighters how to set up and manage their own performance-enhancement system. OSOK is designed not only to enhance performance but also to jumpstart Warfighter resilience. It builds on the skills that Warfighters already possess and then teaches new ones as needed.

There are two ways you can use OSOK: as an individual through “OSOK Solo” and as a unit/group through “OSOK-IP Unit.” Both highlight “10 Rules of Engagement” and provide seven core modules: Controlled Response, Mind Tactics, Performance-Based Nutrition, Primal Fitness, Purpose, Code, and Recharge. OSOK also provides self-assessment forms so you can track your progress over time.

For other performance-enhancement programs and information about holistic (total) fitness, check out HPRC’s Total Force Fitness domain.

HPRC’s Vertical Core Series

Vertical core training is a great way to change up your workout routine and improve your performance.

It’s time to get up off the floor and add something new your core-workout routine. Crunches aren’t the only way to strengthen your core. The Human Performance Resource Center now offers a six-video YouTube series on Vertical Core Training. Your core is more than just your abs; it includes other muscles that stabilize your shoulders, hips, and pelvis. Whether it’s lifting ammo cans or loading a truck, a strong core will help you move safely and efficiently. Use these videos to guide you through various exercises that will help improve total core strength and stability for everyday activities and optimal performance. You can also find these videos and other training resources online in HPRC’s Physical Fitness domain.

Tips on tendonitis

Tendonitis results from damage to connective structures in your body. Learn more about it and get your body back in action.

You’ve been training, and now you’re in pain. It could be you’re having a painful introduction to one of your tendons. Strong tendons connect your muscles to the bones in your body and help you move by pulling on the bones when your muscles contract. Damage to tendons can occur from repetitive activities (including running and firing your weapon repeatedly over an extended period of time) or from sudden movements that put too much stress on a tendon. If you can’t avoid these activities, then pay attention to the warning signs that a tendon could be reaching its breaking point: pain, especially when moving the affected area; swelling over the area of pain; and, possibly, loss of motion in the joint.

The best way to avoid having to get treatment for tendonitis is to prevent it from happening in the first place! Follow these tips:

  1. Overall health: Maintain a healthy diet and weight, and check out HPRC’s Nutrition domain.
  2. Posture and body mechanics: Pay attention to your posture and make sure that you use correct body mechanics, especially when lifting and moving heavy objects.
  3. Maintain adequate muscle strength so your body can react to stresses you place on it.
  4. Maintain adequate flexibility.
  5. Consider proper workout gear, especially footwear; check out this HPRC article for more information.

How do get yourself back into your training program if you are suffering from tendonitis? The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine and the Cleveland Clinic recommend the following:

  1. Activity modification: Rest the affected area. This could mean taking some time off from activities that cause pain and further damage. For example, if you’re a runner with Achilles tendonitis, try biking instead until the tendon has healed enough.
  2. Ice: Cold can help to decrease pain and swelling.
  3. Physical therapy: Gentle stretching and strengthening exercises, as well as massage, might help but should be done under the supervision of a healthcare provider.
  4. Anti-inflammatory medications: Ask your physician about medications that can help your condition.
  5. Bracing or casting might be needed in severe cases.

You should see your doctor right away if you experience fever, redness, and warmth in the affected area, or multiple sites of pain. For more information on injury prevention, check out HPRC’s “Preventing common injuries,” which covers six specific areas of injury: wrist and hand, knee, ankle, rotator cuff, back, and IT band.

HITT: The Basics

HPRC Fitness Arena: Total Force Fitness
Have you heard of HITT? It’s the High Intensity Tactical Training (HITT) program, and its primary purpose is to enhance fitness levels, combat readiness, and resiliency for the United States Marine.

There are many components that contribute to a Marine's optimal readiness, including physical fitness, diet and nutrition, injury prevention, and fatigue management. A balanced and effective approach for optimum performance and combat conditioning should address all four aspects. That’s where HITT comes in.

HITT is a comprehensive strength and conditioning program that takes into consideration the physical demands of operational activities to help Marines optimize their combat readiness. The HITT program focuses on the key components of superior speed, power, strength endurance, combat readiness, and injury prevention.

The four major components of the HITT program include:

  • Injury Prevention (including active dynamic warm-up)
  • Strength and Power
  • Speed, Agility, and Endurance
  • Flexibility and Core Stability

The HITT workout program can be customized as a training tool for a unit or an individual. It can also supplement your current training routine. The workouts are divided into three different modules to address each of the four components listed above.

  • Athlete HITT develops basic strength and speed using barbells, kettle bells, dumbbells, speed harnesses, resistance trainers, and sleds.
  • Combat HITT develops functional strength and endurance using suspension trainers, ammo cans, partner drills, and endurance training.
  • Warrior HITT develops explosive power and agility using Olympic lifts, plyometrics (jumping exercises), battle ropes, cones, hurdles, and ladders.

Exercise videos provide instruction and demonstrations on how to do the exercises and movement properly. The program also uses periodization to promote long-term training improvements while avoiding over-training. Lastly, the program is categorized into specific phases, each with its own objectives and set of training parameters:

  • Pre-Deployment Phase (Warrior, Combat, Athlete). The main goal is to build overall strength and performance, similar to “off-season training” in a traditional sport setting.
  • Deployment Phase (Combat). The objective is to maintain overall fitness levels and reduce the risk of injuries while deployed. This is the Marine’s “in-season training”.
  • Post-Deployment Phase (Athlete). The emphasis is reintegration/strengthening. If a Marine were to sustain injury or lose a significant level of performance, this phase would help get him/her return to full training status.

HITT is endorsed by the National Strength and Conditioning Associations (NSCA) Tactical Strength and Conditioning (TSAC) Department. By implementing the latest cutting-edge training methods and sound science, the HITT program builds fitness for today's tactical athlete – the United States Marine. Read more about HITT and other Marine fitness information on HPRC.

Performance Strategies for injury prevention

An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. Check out our performance strategies for preventing common military injuries.

Injury prevention is critical in maintaining optimal performance and operational readiness. Ankle sprains, knee pain, and back pain are very common injuries in the military. Take the time now to protect yourself from injury, and you’ll be glad you did later. Read our performance  strategies to help fend off common military and athletic injuries, compiled from our recent injury prevention series of posts.

A snappy way to get into shape

Snap into shape! Learn about the benefits of using elastic bands during resistance training rather than free weights or weight-machine exercises.

Anything can disrupt your usual workout routinesummer travels, PCS, deployments, or injuries. If you need a way to stay in shape whatever the snafu, give resistance bands a try. Resistance band training involves targeting particular muscles by pulling and stretching elastic bands. Resistance bands come in different shapes, sizes, and even colors. Some look like oversized rubber bands; others look like cables or tubes. Depending on the length and type, these bands provide progressive resistance throughout various exercises. Unlike free weights, resistance bands also can be used to target key movements, such as a golf swing or a tennis serve. This focuses the exercise on targeted areas and can lead to stronger, more powerful muscles.

Resistance-band training has been studied for all types of people and for different types of activity levels, from NCAA Division I athletes to nursing-home patients. A study with people who were out of shape found that resistance exercises led to the same kinds of improvements in weight loss and strength as weight machines. In another study, athletes who trained with resistance bands were stronger and more powerful than those who used free weights alone. Resistance bands also can help improve muscle strength and range of movement after injury.

What’s more, resistance bands are relatively cheap, lightweight, and easily portable, so you can continue training even when you’re far from a gym. However, if you’re new to resistance bands, you need to learn to use them correctly to prevent injury and maximize your workout. If you’re interested in learning more about training with resistance bands, check out this pamphlet from the American College of Sports Medicine.

Stand up for your health!

You might consider yourself healthy since you get at least 30 minutes a day of exercise, but what you’re doing the rest of the day may have a greater impact on your health and performance.

You’ve heard it all before: You need to get at least 30 minutes of moderate to intense exercise each day to help prevent chronic disease and improve your health. But what do you do for the other 23½ hours? If the answer is sitting (or sleeping), then you might have what is known as “sitting disease.”

It sounds like a joke. Unfortunately, it’s not. If your typical day is spent sitting at a desk, sitting while commuting, sitting down for dinner and TV afterwards, and then going to bed, you’re putting yourself at a greater risk for chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and even cancer. Studies consistently show that the more time you spend sitting or lying down, the greater your risk for chronic disease and early death. The simple act of standing up has even more physiological benefits when compared to sitting. The “active couch potato” phenomenon shows that even people who are relatively fit and meet the minimum requirements for daily exercise still exhibit risk factors for metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases as sitting time increases. Sure, you might take the dog out for his morning walk, or maybe you even did PT before work; but the truth is that the more time you spend sitting the rest of the day, the greater the risk for disease.

You can see from the infographic below (from the American Institute for Cancer Research) that even those who engage in moderate amounts of exercise and physical activity are still at risk for cancer if 12 or more hours in the rest of their day is spent seated or lying down. The risk gets lower as people move more and sit less during the day.Make Time for Break Time Infographic [JPG]

Time is often a major reason that people say they don’t get enough exercise or physical activity during their day. It’s true that work can get busy, but it might just take a little creativity to turn it into a productive work AND physically active day. Here are some tips to help get you up and out of your fancy ergonomic chair.

  • Bike or walk to work if possible.
  • Take the stairs instead of the elevator (or at least partway if you work on a high-up floor).
  • Turn your meeting into a walking meeting.
  • Walk down the hall to give someone a message rather than email or call them.
  • Stand up while talking on the phone.
  • Don’t eat lunch at your desk; walk to the cafeteria or a nearby park, even if you packed your lunch.
  • Find out if you can get a standing or walking desk at work.
  • Buy a pedometer to track how many steps you take per day.

Doing what you can to increase the amount of time you spend standing, exercising and being physically active will improve your chances of a longer and healthier life,

Exercise for children and teens

Exercise is an important aspect of healthy child and teen development. Learn about guidelines and tips.

Physical fitness is important at any age, and it’s especially important that children begin leading healthy, active lifestyles early on. Regular exercise for kids can build strong muscles and bones and promote overall health. Exercise can also boost kids’ self-esteem, improve sleep, and stimulate learning in school. But do you know what kinds of exercise your children or teens should be doing? Check out HPRC’s Answer, “Put some fun in your children’s fitness,” to find out.

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