You are here: Home / HPRC Blog
RSS Feed

HPRC Blog

Welcome to the HPRC Blog. We've got lots of information here, from quick tips to in-depth posts about detailed human performance optimization topics.

Stress Fracture Prevention: Strengthening the Lower Extremity Muscles

Maintaining strength and flexibility in the lower extremities is one of the many important steps toward decreasing the likelihood of developing the small cracks in a bone commonly known as stress fractures.

There are several risk factors for stress fracture development, but a 2011 article in Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise found that maintaining adequate muscle strength and flexibility in the hips, legs, knees, ankles, and feet is of great importance, especially for women. Here are some exercises from the American Council on Exercise that can help you build strength and flexibility:

Ankle Flexion

Single Leg Push-off

Forward Hurdle Run

Seated Calf Stretch

Standing Dorsi-Flexion (Calf Stretch)

Supine Hamstrings Stretch

Barbell Calf Raises

Jump and Reach

Agility Ladder: Lateral Shuffle

Alternate Leg Push-off

Barbell Jammers

Before beginning any exercise program, however, make sure to consult with a medical professional, especially if you are more than 45 years old.

Tips for parents to help children and teens with deployment: Week 5

Look at deployment and reintegration as times of family strength and growth to help you and your children weather the changes gracefully.

In this fifth and final week of strategies you can use to help your children and teens weather the deployment of a parent, we take a look at how you can use the experience to strengthen your family.

Week #5 tips: Honor the family strengths.

  • Deployment and reintegration can be times of family strength and growth. Look at these as opportunities to practice new roles and routines that can be helpful as your family adapts to the challenges of deployment and reintegration.
  • Recognize the growth of your adolescent when you return from your deployment. Many teens feel like they’ve matured during their parent’s absence and feel hurt when this goes unacknowledged. In fact, acknowledging and communicating growth and transformations for each member of the family can be a great family activity to build positive relationships.

The lowdown on stress fractures—and how to prevent them

Stress fractures are chronic injuries that occur most often in the lower extremities. Prevention is key and can be helped through adequate attention to nutrition, training surfaces, and footwear, as well as gradual progression in training.

The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons defines a stress fracture as a tiny crack in a bone that occurs when fatigued muscles lose their ability to absorb shock and then transfer stresses to the bone. Most stress fractures occur in the lower extremities, and more than half occur in the lower leg and foot.

A stress fracture is an overuse—sometimes referred to as chronic—injury, which means that it develops over a long period of time—from weeks to months. According to a 2011 systematic review published in Military Medicine, stress fracture incidence is high among U.S. military recruits, ranging anywhere from 3% for men to 9.2% for women.

Since it can take several weeks or months for a stress fracture to heal, the best approach is to avoid getting one. Here are some tips for prevention:

  1. Apply the progression principle of training—gradually increase your training intensity. Slowly incorporate higher-stress activities such as jumping and interval training into your workout. Setting incremental goals can be helpful in carrying out your training routine in a gradual way. And check out HPRC’s Physical Fitness Resources for more information on training and ways to avoid injury.
  2. Check your footwear and make sure it matches your training. Replace footwear that is old or worn.
  3. Pay attention to the surface where you train, since some are easier on the bones and joints of the lower extremities. For example, it is better to jog on softer surfaces such as rubber track or grass rather than on concrete. Also, it’s better to begin training on a flat surface and then progress to hills.
  4. Monitor your diet, specifically calcium and vitamin D intake, and read the National Institute of Health’s Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet on calcium. To learn more about nutrition take a look at HPRC’s Nutrition Resources.

It is important to recognize a stress fracture and seek medical advice early, as discussed in Clinics in Sports Medicine. The Mayo Clinic provides information on the symptoms of a stress fracture.

Introducing OPSS: Operation Supplement Safety

Watch for new educational materials about how to determine if a dietary supplement is relatively safe or not.

Do you buy dietary supplements when you want to lose weight, improve your performance, or give yourself a boost to get through a long day or hard workout? Then watch for this soon-to-be-released service-wide educational campaign by the Department of Defense in collaboration with the Human Performance Resource Center. Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS) will help Warfighters and their families make informed decisions when choosing dietary supplements. See HPRC’s new OPSS link for an introductory article on supplement safety.

Tips for parents to help children and teens with deployment: Week 4

Tips for parents to use during reintegration to help children and teenagers

Children grow and change over the course of a deployment, and service members can sometimes miss events and milestones. Here are some practical strategies you can keep in mind during reintegration to help your children and teenagers.

Week #4 tips: Strategies you can use during reintegration.

  • When a deployed parent returns, slowly transition the roles and responsibilities of each family member at home, but don’t forget the individual needs of each person as well as the family as a whole.
  • Let your children know that you love them unconditionally, but still provide clear expectations and boundaries.
  • Brainstorm a list of fun activities to do as a family.
  • Devote one-on-one time with each child when you return home in order to get reacquainted with your children.
  • Demonstrate how to cope well with emotions. For example, children can be taught emotion management. One tool is called a “feeling thermometer.” Family members can monitor and control their feelings using the picture of a temperature thermometer to manage stress when the temperature is too high.

Tips for parents to help children and teens with deployment: Week 3

Strategies for helping your teenager cope with deployment include keeping the lines open.

This week we offer some practical strategies to help you to keep the lines of communication open with your teens about deployment and post-deployment reintegration.

Week #3 tips: Maintain open communication with your teenager.

  • The most important strategy to use especially with teens is to maintain open communication about concerns, emotions, and questions.
  • Encourage your teens and children to speak out about their thoughts and feelings to their loved ones. It not only helps manage their emotions, but it also helps foster closer family relationships.
  • Stay close to your teen or child while you are deployed using the technology they love: smartphones, Twitter, Facebook, email, etc.
  • Reinforce your teenager’s growing autonomy while you rebuild and maintain your relationship in new and flexible ways. Let your teen choose how much he or she wants to stay in touch; take a hint from how—and how often—they respond to you reaching out.
  • You also can encourage your teens and children to create a “scrapbook” of videos, pictures, stories, and relevant events that took place while their parent was deployed so experiences can be shared during and after deployment.

    Tips for parents to help children and teens with deployment: Week 2

    More strategies you can use to help your child or teen cope throughout the deployment cycle.

    Here are some additional practical strategies and tips you as a parent can use to help your children and teens cope with deployment and the post-deployment reintegration process.

    Week #2 tips: Easing deployment and reintegration

    • Before deployment: If you’re being deployed, try recording your own audio books so your child can listen to your voice during your deployment. This also will help your child stay connected to you by continuing family routines such as reading before bed.
    • During deployment: Depending on their age, kids don’t understand timeframes as well as adults do. If you continue to remind them of future plans during and after the deployed parent’s return, it will help them deal with the separation and reunion.
    • Try referring to the deployed parent’s absence as work instead of just saying that he or she is gone. This helps children realize that the absent parent didn’t simply choose to leave them, which could make for a better reunion.
    • Before the deployed parent returns, talk about what issues to address when he or she does. And plan activities you can share together.
    • Throughout the deployment cycle: Be aware of mental health symptoms for children of all ages. If needed, join your children or teenagers in group counseling; it can be a helpful forum where everyone can discuss experiences, feelings, and thoughts.

        Listen your way to relaxation

        HPRC Fitness Arena: Mind Tactics, Total Force Fitness
        Learn to “Relax Relax” with a toolkit of audio files from NMCPHC.

        Grab your headphones and learn effective relaxation strategies for performance optimization and stress reduction with the Relax Relax Toolkit from the Navy and Marine Corps Public Health Center (NMCPHC). Featuring audio instruction from experts and links to evidence-based information on each technique, this toolkit covers a number of strategies including breathing exercises, muscle relaxation strategies, meditation styles, and combination and advanced strategies. To help meditation, Relax Relax also presents a variety of relaxing music to help you meditate.  Visit the HPRC’s Stress Control Tools for more information on relaxation strategies.

        Dietary supplements and drug testing

        Want to know if your dietary supplement or prescription drug product will affect your drug test? Consult with DoD laboratories for help.

        HPRC has received a number of questions about whether dietary supplements—especially those used for bodybuilding and weight loss—could result in a positive result on military drug tests.

        Military drug testing begins with urine, which is first screened and then followed by additional tests depending on the outcome of the screen. You can get extensive information about DoD’s drug policy and drug testing from the Drug Demand Reduction Program (DDRP), including military testing. And for answers about the potential effects of specific dietary supplements on drug screening tests, you can contact your service’s military drug-testing laboratory by phone or email at:

        Positive urinalysis results due to dietary supplement use can occur because products on the market may contain undeclared drug ingredients—that is, controlled substances that are not stated/listed on the product label. More information can be found in the FDA Consumer Update There you will also find information about how to get updates about products FDA has identified as tainted. There is no way to know if a particular supplement contains an undeclared drug without laboratory testing, but FDA does keep track of such products once identified through its MedWatch program.

        The Department of Defense (DoD) currently has no formal policy on the use of dietary supplements and no list of either banned or safe supplements. For more on this topic, see Operation Supplement Safety’s (OPSS) FAQ “Is there an all-encompassing list of dietary supplements that are banned or illegal for use by military personnel?”

        Tips for parents to help children and teens with deployment: Week 1

        Try talking to your child or teen about their deployment experiences for optimal family performance over the long run.

        Many children and teenagers born and raised in military families learn to adapt to their parent’s deployment and return and become more resilient as a result. However, no family is immune to stress. Learning what strategies work best for your family—and each family member—is important for optimal performance over the long run.

        Over the next five weeks, HPRC will suggest some practical strategies that you can use as a parent to help your children and teens to cope with deployment and post-deployment reintegration.

        Week #1 tips: Try talking with your child about any phase of deployment.

        • Help your children stay in touch with their deployed parent—whether through phone calls, videos, or email. Keeping the absent parent up-to-date with events on the home front helps make the homecoming easier.
        • Talk about changes that occur during deployment. If your child doesn’t want to talk, encourage expression through playing or drawing.
        • Allow and encourage your children to ask any questions they may have regarding deployment—before, during, and after—and give them open, honest, and age-appropriate answers.
        RSS Feed