Welcome to the HPRC Blog. We've got lots of information here, from quick tips to in-depth posts about detailed human performance optimization topics.
Lyme disease is a serious concern for those who spend a lot of time in heavily wooded areas and a especially for the DoD. It’s common in the United States and around the world and is caught from the bite of two different species of ticks—the deer tick and the western blacklegged tick.
After spending time in wooded or grassy areas, check yourself all over, including your back (enlist a friend or a mirror to help). The early removal of a tick that’s attached to you is key in preventing Lyme, since the tick must be attached for 24-48 hours in order to transmit the bacteria that cause this disease. Ohio State University conducted a study using different tick-removal tools and concluded that all three tools were effective—and confirmed that early removal is more important than the type of tool that is used. The Centers for Disease Control provides easy-to-follow tips on tick removal using just tweezers.
If you know you’ve been bitten by a tick, or begin to notice symptoms such as a bullseye rash (an early sign of Lyme infection) at a bite location, fatigue, chills, fever, muscle aches, or swollen lymph nodes, you should to see your doctor. Blood tests can be used to confirm whether the symptoms are from Lyme disease. If left untreated, more severe symptoms can occur, such as loss of muscle tone in the face (called Bell’s palsy), severe or shooting pain, and heart palpitations. A typical successful treatment includes a course of antibiotics, but there can still be lingering symptoms, called chronic or post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. When it comes to Lyme disease, the best offense is a good defense. Some tips for prevention:
- Wear your military uniform properly. This can help to prevent tick bites since long pants, long sleeves, and pants that are tucked into boots minimize exposed skin.
- Use insect repellents such as DEET or Permethrin.
- If you are in a wooded area, avoid tall grasses and brush. If this isn’t possible then be sure to follow tips #4–7 below as you are able.
- Perform a thorough skin check—especially of the hair and base of the skull at the hairline.
- Shower within two hours of being outside. This can help wash off ticks that are still crawling on the skin.
- Examine gear and pets for hitchhiking ticks.
- If you have access to a dryer, put your clothes in it for an hour on high heat to kill any ticks.
If you are interested in more information on diseases and conditions that are spread by ticks, insects, or other pests, you can visit the Armed Forces Pest Management Board.
Do you know that many kinds of chewing gum—including the gum in MREs—contains a sugar sweetener called “xylitol”? This natural sweetener can be good for your teeth and gums! Xylitol has been found to offer preventive dental benefits, including reduced bacteria and acids that cause cavities and significant decreases in plaque. Most studies have shown that the use of chewing gum or mints with xylitol three to five times a day, especially after eating, result in the greatest benefits. Other sugar-free sweeteners used in gum and mints offer some oral health benefits, but for maximal benefits use products with xylitol. For more information, read this health fact sheet xylitol and how it can protect your teeth. Although chewing gum or mints with xylitol helps reduce cavities, they do not replace the benefits of regular brushing and flossing.
One of the top personal sources of stress for Warfighters (according to a 2011 DoD survey) is money. Not enough money, not enough savings, or a bad credit history—all contribute to financial stress. For information and ideas on budgeting and saving money, check out this recent HPRC article. Another tool in your financial arsenal is the credit report. But first: What is a credit report?
A credit report is simply a record of your credit history. It includes your name, social security number, home address, credit cards, loans, collections, open amounts (how much you owe), and whether you have paid your bills on time (if late, it shows how late: 31-45 days past due, 46-60 days past due, etc.). In fact, you have more than one credit report; there are three major ones, so you need to pay attention to them all.
It’s important to have good credit reports—they have the information businesses look at to determine if they want to do business with you. This means if you apply for a credit card or loan, (1) are you worthy to get credit; (2) if you qualify, then what would the interest rate be; and (3) for an interest-free credit card or loan, what would the payback period be.
A number of businesses look at your credit reports: credit card companies, banks, mortgage lenders, cell phone companies, and even your insurance company. Employers can look at your credit history as well, but they must ask for your permission first.
It’s important to look at your credit reports for accuracy, especially with identity thefts, and to review the list of open credits that you may no longer use. Open credit is open credit—it can limit you in the long run because creditors know you have open lines of credit to use. The great news is that you can ask for a free credit report every 12 months from each of the three major companies, thanks to the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA). Visit the Federal Trade Commission’s (FTC) website to see how to get your free credit reports.
If you’re going TDY soon and your travel plans include an airport, read on. Don’t just step on to the people movers between concourses and then sit around while you wait. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) wants you to turn your travel experience into an opportunity to get some exercise. ACSM’s “Exercise on the Fly” task force is promoting healthy air travel by getting people to think of airports as fitness centers: Every major airport is climate-controlled, with stairs and long stretches of walking areas. For layovers that last several hours, you might even have time to find a park or gym nearby outside the terminal. The task force is working with airport officials to post signs and other materials that promote walking while you wait. They also hope to publish a list of all physical activity opportunities at about 20 major hub airports in the United States. Remember that every little bit counts, even if it’s just a brisk 10-minute walk between terminals. So next time you head to the airport, be sure to throw a pair of sneakers in your carry-on for a workout on the go.
Reports estimate that one of every four deaths is attributed to heart disease. Cardiorespiratory (aerobic) activities such as jogging, cycling, and swimming directly improve the function of the heart, which decreases the risk of coronary artery disease, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, stroke, and type II diabetes. Aerobic fitness is important enough that all active-duty service members must complete an aerobic fitness assessment, such as a maximal effort timed run, as part of their annual physical fitness test.
To delve a little deeper about the changes your heart, lungs, and blood vessels undergo when you improve your aerobic fitness, read on. One important change that occurs is that your heart’s “stroke volume”—the amount of blood the heart pumps out with each beat—increases. This comes from an increase in your heart’s strength and ability to hold a greater amount of blood. This in turn reduces your heart rate (HR) both at rest and at all levels of exercise. In fact, with consistent training, your resting HR could likely decrease as much as eight to10 beats per minute. That’s about 5 million fewer heartbeats in a year! Simply put, aerobic training means your heart has to do less work to get your job done.
Changes also occur to your blood and blood vessels with aerobic fitness. Your blood vessels increase in diameter and are better able to expand and constrict. This allows blood to move through your blood vessels with less resistance, reducing your blood pressure. And what happens to your blood? The levels of plasma (the liquid portion of the blood), red blood cells, and hemoglobin all increase, which means that your blood can carry more oxygen.
Altogether, the physiological changes mentioned here should make it easy to see why aerobic exercise is so important. If you want to learn more about how to get started improving your cardiorespiratory health through exercise, visit these Performance Strategies from HPRC.
If you’re in the military, your smartphone may have just gotten smarter. Researchers have recently developed hardware and software that enables teams with Android smartphones to locate nearby snipers. Acoustic sensors have been developed and used by the military in the past, but this portable attachment hooks up to a smartphone and uses microphone sensors to triangulate a sniper’s location through muzzle blasts and shockwaves. Other sniper sensors have been developed, such as the helmet-mounted sensor back in 2007 that is the predecessor to this smartphone system. According to one source, the Army has plans to send soldiers to Afghanistan with smartphone technology that will allow them to communicate—even text—more effectively out in the field. As smartphones find their way into combat, this kind of technology shows great promise for the near future.
Operation Live Well is a new wellness campaign by the Department of Defense that aims to make healthy living the easy choice and the norm for service members, retirees, DoD civilians, and their families. They point out resources for how to eat better, stay physically active, quit or avoid tobacco, and stay mentally fit. The educational, outreach, and behavior-change initiatives provide tools and resources to help you learn about healthy lifestyles. You’ll also be able to develop your own personalized health plan via the Operation Live Well website soon.
A second part of Operation Live Well is their Healthy Base Initiative (HBI), which aims to help the defense community reach or maintain a healthy weight and avoid tobacco use. Scheduled for launch during the summer of 2013 at 13 military installations and DoD sites worldwide, HBI will offer a range of installation-tailored, health-related programs that will be measured for their effectiveness. The programs that are most successful will eventually be expanded to other installations.
For more information on Operation Live Well, visit militaryonesource.mil/olw.
June is National Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Month. And it’s no wonder—during the warm summer months many fresh fruits and vegetables are at their peak. So take advantage of nature’s bounty and make an effort to include more fruits and vegetables into your family’s diet. Here are some tips to help:
- Start early: Top your morning breakfast cereal with fresh berries, bananas, or peaches for added flavor and nutrition.
- Add some crisp lettuce leaves and juicy tomato slices to a sandwich or wrap.
- Kids love foods they can “dip,” so encourage them to dip their veggies in a delicious, healthy fresh tomato salsa.
- Keep fresh veggies and fruits on a platter in the refrigerator so kids (and you!) can grab some any time—cooling off by the pool, reading a book, or cooking dinner.
- Go to a farmers’ market to find the freshest, in-season produce.
- Plant your own garden—or just a small tomato plant on the back porch. There’s nothing quite like homegrown fruits and vegetables.
- Have some dessert! Fruits are full of natural sweetness—the perfect way to round out a meal.
Eating fruits and vegetables may reduce your risk of cancer, diabetes, and many other diseases. To find out how many fruits and vegetables you and your family should be eating, use this great calculator from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The U.S. Department of Agriculture has more information about the benefits of eating fruits and vegetables as well as lots of great tips to help you incorporate fruits and vegetables into your diet.
Are you a professional who would like to know more about the evidence behind a program that you are thinking about using with military families? Or are you a military family member currently participating in a program you want to find out more about? Check out Pennsylvania State University’s Clearinghouse for Military Family Readiness. HPRC’s Answer describes this program and the services it provides.
If you’ve injured a muscle or tendon during your PT training and wondered if that elastic tape that comes in bright colors could help you, read on. Elastic therapeutic tape is significantly different from regular elastic bandages, and it became popular during the 2008 Beijing Olympics when athletes such as professional beach volleyball player Kerri Walsh used it. Both are used to treat athletic injuries such as strains and sprains, but they produce their benefits in different ways. Elastic therapeutic tape is made of a thin material with thickness and elasticity similar to that of human skin. When taped on skin it supports injured muscles. However, it has also been reported that it helps relieve pain by lifting the skin away from the tissue beneath and enhancing blood and lymph flow to the injured area. Regular elastic bandages such as ACE bandages also provide support and reduce pain when wrapped around an injury, but unlike elastic therapeutic tape, they provide localized pressure to reduce swelling. In addition, they don’t stick to skin and usually restrict range of motion. Users report that elastic therapeutic tape works, but scientific evidence is contradictory. There just isn’t enough evidence to support the use of elastic therapeutic taping over other types of tape/bandage, and there is no scientific explanation for why it should work. So just be aware and use this tape at your discretion.