Welcome to the HPRC Blog. We've got lots of information here, from quick tips to in-depth posts about detailed human performance optimization topics.
The Human Performance Resource Center is here to serve Warfighters and their families, commanders, and healthcare providers. If you’ve visited before, you probably know that we focus on “total force fitness.” But do you really know what that means—or how HPRC got started? If you’re curious, check out this PDF that describes HPRC, what we do, and the vast amount of information we cover. In addition, you may have noticed that we use the term “human performance optimization” throughout our site; this article also explains what that means.
The physical demands placed on the Warfighter in training and operational settings can take a toll on joints and bones over time. Following a healthy diet can help reduce your risk of many diseases and maintain healthy joints and bones. A few nutrients have been shown to support joint and bone health, including calcium, vitamin D, vitamin C, and selenium. Consuming too much alcohol has been shown to have a negative effect.
Calcium and vitamin D work together for strong bones and overall bone health, because vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. Men and women ages 19–50 should try to get 1000 mg of calcium daily; older women need 1200 mg daily. Good sources of calcium include milk, yogurt, fortified orange juice, and green leafy vegetables. Your body produces vitamin D when your skin is exposed to sunlight, but you can also get it in your diet from salmon, tuna, and fortified dairy products. Adults need about 600 IUs of vitamin D daily.
Vitamin C is essential for cartilage—the material that cushions your joints and prevents bones from rubbing together. Men need about 90 mg and women need about 75 mg daily, roughly the amount in a large orange. You can get vitamin C from citrus fruit, broccoli, and tomatoes.
Dietary selenium (a mineral) also may play a role in bone health. Adults need about 55 mcg of selenium daily. Selenium is found in nuts (especially Brazil nuts), tuna, and sunflower seeds.
Drinking too much alcohol negatively affects many of the body’s systems, including the bones and joints. Alcohol can cause weight gain, increase risk for osteoporosis and stress injuries, and damage cartilage. Limit your alcohol consumption to one drink per day for women and two for men. A drink is defined as one 5 oz. glass of wine, one 12 oz. beer, or one 1.5 oz. shot of liquor.
Inflammation can play a role in joint conditions such as arthritis, so a diet that helps reduce inflammation might be beneficial in protecting your joints. Eating plenty of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and healthy fats (found in nuts and fatty fish such as salmon) not only reduces inflammation, it can also help maintain a healthy weight, which is essential to preserving joint health.
Excess body weight stresses joints and increases wear and tear. Following a diet that is lower in fat and calories can help maintain or reduce body weight, preventing additional joint stress. For more information about healthy joints, read the fact sheet from the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. Also, Chapter 17 of the Warfighter Nutrition Guide, “The High Mileage Warrior Athlete,” provides more information on maintaining joint and bone health.
Stretching and strengthening the muscles of the foot and ankle can help you prevent (and recover) from ankle sprains. The Foot and Ankle Conditioning Program from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons focuses on recovering from injury, but it includes well-illustrated exercises that are good for preventive conditioning too. Here are some other exercises useful for strengthening the foot and ankle structure:
- From a seated position, “pretend” writing the alphabet with each foot, in both upper- and lower-case letters.
- Stand on one leg on a pillow for 10 seconds and then switch legs. Be sure to have something nearby to grab for balance if necessary.
- From a seated position, use a resistance band looped to a secure surface, and wrap the other end around your forefoot; then move your foot/ankle forward, backward, and side-to-side, flexing at the ankle.
An ankle sprain involves damage to ligaments—bands of tissue that help hold joints together—in the foot and ankle, usually from the force of landing wrong on your foot. In military populations, ankle sprains are very common, significantly affecting operational readiness. In fact, ankle sprains are more common in the military than in civilian populations and more likely among women than men. By strengthening the muscles in your legs and feet, you can give more support to your ankle in the event of a misstep or an encounter with uneven terrain. The transition from military boots, which offer more ankle support, to traditional athletic shoes may also leave you and your ankles feeling vulnerable to twists and sprains. Start including ankle-strengthening exercises into your daily workout routine to help keep your ankles strong and free from injury.
A new app for promoting military family resilience—Focus On The Go—has been released in partnership with the FOCUS (Families Overcoming Under Stress) resiliency program. It has a variety of activities and resources for your entire family, including skill-building games with more than 40 levels for a variety of ages, including parents.
For more resources to help build family resilience, check out HPRC’s Family Resilience section.
Prosthetic limbs have come a long way in a short amount of time, mostly because of the number of service members coming back from deployments with traumatic injuries and with the demand for better technology. Advancements in prosthetic arms now include devices that can move and bend individual fingers and joints. However, a sense of touch is one remaining obstacle—but one that researchers are close to conquering.
Many patients with arm prosthetics describe the difficulty with grabbing objects because there is no feedback to the brain. For example, breaking dishes, bruising fruit by grabbing it too hard, and dropping slippery cans are all too likely without any sense of feeling in the hand.
Researchers are now developing a prosthetic limb—called the Modular Prosthetic Limb—that will close the loop between the brain and the prosthetic hand by adding various sensors to contact points such as the fingertips and joints. This will allow sensory feedback to the brain that gives the user enough “feeling” to distinguish between a wool sweater and a cold beverage, for example.
The Department of Defense is working with various universities such as Johns Hopkins and the University of Pittsburgh to develop this unique device and make it available to wounded warriors.
Does your mind ever get in the way of you being your best? Are your thoughts stuck in a negative rut? Do you wish you knew a strategy for trying to get yourself out of these “thinking traps” that we all fall victim to every now and then? Check out HPRC’s downloadable card—“Change Your Mind for Peak Performance”—which highlights some common mind traps and learn about one strategy that may help.
For more information on enhancing your mind, check out HPRC’s Mind Tactics domain.
The Department of Defense (DoD) Safety Review Panel published their findings on DMAA in a recent report now available through HPRC. The Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs asked the Safety Review Panel to evaluate the safety of DMAA-containing dietary supplement products. The Panel has recommended that the sale of DMAA-containing products be prohibited in all military exchanges.
HPRC maintains a list of dietary supplement products containing DMAA and periodically updates this list. The most recent version can be found on HPRC’s website. Note that, as of the FDA announcement in April 2013, DMAA is illegal in the U.S. as an ingredient in dietary supplements. For more information, visit the OPSS FAQ about DMAA. Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS) can provide service members and their families with information to make informed decisions about dietary supplement use. For the full DoD Safety Review Panel report, see the link on HPRC's Dietary Supplements web page.
Figuring out knee pain can take some detective work, although injuries are a common cause. For example, sports-related injuries such as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears and chondromalacia (also called “runner’s knee”) can cause pain and affect performance. You can help prevent such injuries by strengthening your lower leg muscles. Strengthening your hamstrings and quadriceps, which cross the knee joint, can give extra stability and support to your knees. Leg exercises such as squats, lunges, curls, and extensions will improve muscular strength and endurance in your hamstrings and quadriceps.
Weight management is also important in preventing some knee injuries. Excess body weight only adds stress to the knees during weight bearing activities, like walking, running or jumping.
Another key to prevention is listening to your body. If you feel that minor symptoms are getting worse, it might be a good time to temporarily modify your training until symptoms subside. For example, if running is part of your cardiovascular routine, consider trying a few weeks of alternate activities that are less stressful on the joints such as swimming or biking.
Grapefruit is a tropical fruit known for its lip-puckering flavor. It contains vitamin C and many other nutrients and is a regular feature at the breakfast table. Grapefruit and its extracts also show up as flavoring agents in beverages and are sometimes added to dietary supplements.
Despite its many health benefits, grapefruit can pose a risk for people taking certain drugs. That’s because grapefruit can affect the way drugs are broken down or transported in the body—potentially increasing or decreasing the drugs’ effectiveness.
If you enjoy eating grapefruit or grapefruit-containing products, be aware of potential interactions when taking medication. If you take prescription or over-the-counter drugs, ask your doctor or pharmacist if you should avoid grapefruit. This consumer update from the Food and Drug Administration has more information.
Identity theft is a serious crime that can completely disrupt your life through credit card charges and ruined credit history if the theft is not caught quickly. So, what is identity theft? It’s what happens when someone assumes your identity by using your personal information or property—typically your Social Security number or credit cards—without your permission. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, there are three general types of incidents:
- Unauthorized use or attempted use of existing credit cards
- Unauthorized use or attempted use of checking accounts
- Unauthorized use or attempted use of personal information to get credit cards, accounts, or loans or to commit other crimes
Homes unoccupied for extended periods may be goldmines for thieves to dig through trashcans, dumpsters, or storage areas at homes or apartment buildings for documents with useful pieces of information. Or it may be as easy as stealing a credit card from your mailbox or directly from your wallet.
When getting ready for deployments, you can place an active duty alert on your credit reports that lasts for one calendar year. For more information and tips, review the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) handout for Warfighters and their families.