Filed under: Safety
The physical demands of military life are challenging, and if you’re not prepared, they can lead to injuries. The injury prevention series we’ll be running over the next several weeks will provide you with information and strategies for preventing some of the most common injuries: those to the knee, ankle, rotator cuff, back, iliotibial band and wrist/hand. Prevention is key: Taking time for the small stuff may have big payoff down the road. Much of what the exercises done for recovery after an injury can actually be done to prevent the injury in the first place. Stay injury-free for optimal performance! Check back soon for the first in this series.
Tribulus terrestris is used as an ingredient in some dietary supplement products marketed as testosterone “boosters” and/or to enhance muscle strength. What is it and does it work? Read this OPSS FAQ about Tribulus terrestris to find out. Also, be sure to check the OPSS section often, as we add answers to other questions about ingredients in performance-enhancing and bodybuilding supplements. OPSS can help you learn how to choose supplements safely.
If you have a question about a particular dietary supplement ingredient or product, and you can’t find the answer on our website, please use our “Ask the Expert” button located on the OPSS home page.
Lyme disease is a serious concern for those who spend a lot of time in heavily wooded areas and a especially for the DoD. It’s common in the United States and around the world and is caught from the bite of two different species of ticks—the deer tick and the western blacklegged tick.
After spending time in wooded or grassy areas, check yourself all over, including your back (enlist a friend or a mirror to help). The early removal of a tick that’s attached to you is key in preventing Lyme, since the tick must be attached for 24-48 hours in order to transmit the bacteria that cause this disease. Ohio State University conducted a study using different tick-removal tools and concluded that all three tools were effective—and confirmed that early removal is more important than the type of tool that is used. The Centers for Disease Control provides easy-to-follow tips on tick removal using just tweezers.
If you know you’ve been bitten by a tick, or begin to notice symptoms such as a bullseye rash (an early sign of Lyme infection) at a bite location, fatigue, chills, fever, muscle aches, or swollen lymph nodes, you should to see your doctor. Blood tests can be used to confirm whether the symptoms are from Lyme disease. If left untreated, more severe symptoms can occur, such as loss of muscle tone in the face (called Bell’s palsy), severe or shooting pain, and heart palpitations. A typical successful treatment includes a course of antibiotics, but there can still be lingering symptoms, called chronic or post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. When it comes to Lyme disease, the best offense is a good defense. Some tips for prevention:
- Wear your military uniform properly. This can help to prevent tick bites since long pants, long sleeves, and pants that are tucked into boots minimize exposed skin.
- Use insect repellents such as DEET or Permethrin.
- If you are in a wooded area, avoid tall grasses and brush. If this isn’t possible then be sure to follow tips #4–7 below as you are able.
- Perform a thorough skin check—especially of the hair and base of the skull at the hairline.
- Shower within two hours of being outside. This can help wash off ticks that are still crawling on the skin.
- Examine gear and pets for hitchhiking ticks.
- If you have access to a dryer, put your clothes in it for an hour on high heat to kill any ticks.
If you are interested in more information on diseases and conditions that are spread by ticks, insects, or other pests, you can visit the Armed Forces Pest Management Board.
Cheeba Chews are marketed as chocolate taffy, but they actually contain an illegal substance. Read the Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS) FAQ to find out more about these products and whether they are legal for members of the military community to consume. Be sure to check back often as we add answers to other questions and topics in the OPSS section of HPRC’s website.
Barefoot-style, or minimalist, running shoes are still growing in popularity in the military, and the debate continues over whether this style of running prevents injuries or just causes different injuries. There is new research on minimalist running shoes (MRS) and their impact on lower leg and foot injury. After a 10-week study, runners who transitioned to Vibram FiveFinger minimalist running shoes showed signs of injury to their foot bones, while the runners who used traditional running shoes showed none. The types of injuries the MRS runners demonstrated were early signs of inflammation, which may or may not be associated with pain or joint dysfunction. If they are, it might be difficult for the runner to know he/she is actually injured until it is too late and the injury has progressed. More research is needed to determine if other factors (weight, running form/style, mileage, running surface) contribute to injuries associated with barefoot-style running. At least one recent study suggests running style may be a factor. For more in-depth information, read
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued a Consumer Update warning of the potential dangers of DMAA, which was announced illegal in dietary supplements on 11 April 2013. DMAA is also referred to as dimethylamylamine and other names. This dietary supplement product ingredient has been used in many weight-loss, bodybuilding, and performance-enhancement products. FDA received numerous reports of illnesses and death from the use of products containing DMAA; commonly reported reactions include heart and nervous system problems as well as psychiatric disorders. DMAA has been the focus of conflicting information regarding whether or not it is a natural extract from geranium. FDA has now found “the information insufficient to defend the use of DMAA as an ingredient in dietary supplements.” Online, FDA also stated, "Dietary supplements containing DMAA are illegal and FDA is doing everything within its authority to remove these products from the market."
For more information, read the FDA Q&A on DMAA here.
Raspberry ketone, touted to be an effective fat-loss and weight-loss supplement, occurs naturally in various red raspberries. The raspberry ketone in supplements is probably produced in the laboratory, as it would be too expensive to extract it from real raspberries. FDA recognizes that raspberry ketone as a food additive is “Generally Recognized as Safe” (GRAS) to consume in small amounts. However, the long-term effects in humans who consume it as a supplement are unknown. For more information, read HPRC’s InfoReveal on “Raspberry ketone.”
Be extra cautious when taking dietary supplements before and after surgical procedures; some products can have serious negative effects on surgical procedures. For instance, certain supplements prevent certain blood cells (platelets) from clumping, resulting in excessive bleeding during surgery. Some of the ingredients commonly found in supplements that hinder platelet aggregation are ginko biloba, saw palmetto, glucosamine, black tea, fish oil, and garlic. If you are having a surgical operation, consider abstaining from these items or consume these items in moderation a few weeks before and after the procedure. For more a complete list of products and additional information, including other surgical risks associated with dietary supplements, read this web page from the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. And always read product labels carefully; many include warnings of potential medical risks, including the length of time prior to surgery that you should discontinue use.
Both deer velvet and IGF-1 have been in the news lately, and HPRC has received many questions about what these are and whether they improve athletic performance. Does deer velvet contain IGF-1? Read this OPSS FAQ about deer velvet to find out. To learn what IGF-1 is and whether it is banned in the military, read more in the OPSS FAQ about IGF-1. Be sure to check back often, as we add answers to other questions about ingredients in performance and weight-loss supplements and how to choose supplements safely.
It can be tough figuring out the truth about the health benefits of many natural products. One product that’s getting a lot of attention these days is green coffee beans. As a Warfighter looking for ways to optimize your performance or perhaps drop some weight quickly, it’s easy to be overwhelmed by all the marketing hype and claims, especially if it’s an appealing message. Make sure you get the facts.
Green coffee beans are the raw, unroasted seeds or “beans” of the Coffea plant. They contain a chemical called chlorogenic acid (CA) that supposedly offers some health benefits. Roasting reduces the amount of CA in coffee beans; as a result, green coffee beans contain more CA than the roasted beans you use for your morning coffee. Some research suggests that CA might prevent heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure, and help with weight loss. But it’s important to note that most of this research is preliminary, and there just isn’t enough evidence to say that CA will definitely help with any of these health conditions.
Although no serious side effects have been reported from green coffee beans in their natural form, some dietary supplement products containing green coffee beans have been found to contain undeclared drugs, insects, and mold. Of the 126 products containing green coffee beans ranked by the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 40 have been assigned a rating of “1” or “2,” which indicates there are serious concerns about their safety and effectiveness. None have a rating in NMCD’s green zone, which suggests that there are some concerns about them all. Note also that green coffee beans are not always the only active ingredient, so be sure to check the product label.
It’s also important to note that green coffee beans contain caffeine. Side effects of consuming too much caffeine are all too familiar—difficulty sleeping, rapid or irregular heartbeat, nervousness, nausea, and vomiting. Pregnant and breastfeeding women, or those who have been diagnosed with certain medical conditions (including anxiety, diabetes, irritable bowel syndrome, high blood pressure, or osteoporosis) should check with their doctor before consuming green coffee beans. For more information on caffeine, read the OPSS FAQ on caffeine.