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About HPRC

Discover more about the Human Performance Resource Center

About Us

What is HPRC? What is HPO?

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What is HPRC?

The Human Performance Resource Center is an online, one-stop clearinghouse for evidence-based information and key resources to help Warfighters and their families in all aspects of performance to achieve Total Fitness and, ultimately, human performance optimization (HPO; see below).

Optimal performance doesn’t just mean being physically active and eating well; it’s the whole package: psychological, social/familial, behavioral, spiritual, nutritional, physical, and environmental fitness—or Total Force Fitness. That’s where the Human Performance Resource Center comes in.

HPRC is aligned under Force Health Protection and Readiness and is the educational arm of the Consortium for Health and Military Performance (CHAMP) at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS). HPRC can help you on your quest for total fitness and performance optimization.

HPRC has both general and cutting-edge information, resources, strategies, tools, and apps/videos organized around the following areas:

Family & Relationships includes topics such as relationship enhancement, family resilience, deployment phases, family nutrition and physical fitness, many geared towards the specific needs of military families.

Physical Fitness covers topics such as physical training and exercise, injury prevention, weight management, fitness tools, and resources for women.

Dietary Supplements will help you learn about dietary supplements and how to choose them wisely, with a special section about supplement safety.

Nutrition has topics such as nutrition basics, alerts, resources, interactive tools, and “Fighting Weight Strategies.”

Mind Tactics addresses topics such as mental focus/toughness, resilience, relaxation, stress management, getting the best sleep, and alcohol, tobacco, and drugs.

Environment contains information that will help you perform optimally in extreme conditions of heat, altitude, aerospace, water, and more.

Total Force Fitness highlights information and resources on total fitness, bringing together all the above domains to help Warfighters develop resilience and optimal performance, as well as integrative performance enhancement programs and practices, and detailed strategies for pain management.

What does this mean for you? HPRC translates evidence-based materials on various aspects of performance, creates materials on specific topics, and highlights existing resources. You can go to any HPRC domain and find pertinent information—anything from brief downloadable “recipe/tip cards” to longer pieces that address specific topics. Each domain has unique information related to its subject area, many related specifically to the military.

And if you can’t find an answer to your question on the website, submit it to HPRC via the “Ask the Expert” button, and we can answer it for you. Just go to

What is human performance optimization?

HPO TriangleThe term “human performance optimization” (HPO) describes a combination of approaches and techniques that can optimize each person’s performance in order to successfully accomplish his/her mission. It goes beyond simply resisting challenges; rather, it means functioning at a new optimal level to face new challenges. The diagram shows how performance optimization fits in the context of resilience, health, and risk.


DOD Mandate for the HPRC: The Human Performance Resource Center will function to:

  • Translate and disseminate timely, accurate, scientifically based HPO information to commanders, warfighters, medical personnel, and researchers.
  • Facilitate communication and collaboration for all Human Performance Optimization (HPO) communities of interest.

HPRC within the HPO Organizational Structure:

HPRC Organization Chart

DoD-Established HPRC Focus Areas:
The HPRC online content is mapped against the following focus areas outlined in the 2009 HPO Conops. Any information request that cannot be mapped directly against the focus areas requires approval by the HPRC Director or Senior Scientist/Educator before any resources are allocated toward it.

  • Physical resilience attained through physical training, physical health, and other adaptation interventions
  • Preventive medicine measures, including immunizations and drug prophylaxis, dental health, occupational and environmental health
  • Nutrition and dietary supplements
  • Performance assessment
  • Rapid recovery and return to optimal performance
  • Health promotion (alcohol abuse, tobacco use, stress management, relaxation, weight control, etc.)
  • Psychological resilience attained through cognitive training, behavioral health, and other adaptive interventions
  • Ability to function in environmental extremes, including hypo/hyperbaric extremes, temperature and humidity extremes, high/low G’s
  • Medications for performance enhancement
  • Management of sleep, fatigue, alertness
  • Biomarkers of exposure and effect
  • Human Systems Integration as it relates to the health sciences

Key HPO Definitions:

  • Human Performance Optimization: The process of applying knowledge, skills, and emerging technologies to improve and preserve the capabilities of military members, families and organizations to execute essential tasks.
  • Resilience: The resources to withstand, recover, and/or grow in the face of stressors and changing demands.
  • Total Fitness: A state in which the individual, family, and organization can sustain optimal well-being and performance.
  • Health: A state of complete physical, mental, social, and spiritual well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.


Francis G. O’Connor, MD, MPH
Associate Professor at the Uniformed Services
University and Medical Director for the Consortium on Health and Military Performance and the Human Performance Resource Center, Dr. O’Connor has been a leader in sports medicine education and research for the military for over 15 years.

Dr. O’Connor has authored more than 30 articles in scientific journals and numerous book chapters/technical reports/health promotion resources for the military. In addition, Dr. O’Connor is the editor of four texts on sports medicine, including the Textbook of Running Medicine and Sports Medicine for the Primary Care Physician, 3rd Edition. He is on the board of several leading organizations in sports medicine, including the American College of Sports Medicine, the American Medical Society of Sports Medicine, and the American Medical Athletic Association. A Colonel in the United States Army, Dr. O’Connor is a graduate of the United States Military Academy at West Point, and prior to his recent posting at Uniformed Services University in the Department of Military Medicine, he served one year as a Command Surgeon with Special Operations in the Middle East.

Patricia Deuster, PhD, MPH, CNS
Dr. Patricia Deuster, PhD, MPH, CNS, is a Professor and Scientific Director for the Consortium for Health and Military Performance (CHAMP) in the Department of Military and Emergency Medicine, and for the Human Performance Resource Center (HPRC), at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD. She was the author of the first U.S. Navy SEAL Nutrition Guide sponsored by U.S. Special Operations Command and, because of its success, was commissioned to update the nutrition guide for the United States Special Operations Commands (USSOCOM).

Dr. Deuster, a Certified Nutrition Specialist, has conducted research in the area of sports and warrior nutrition for over 25 years and has published well over 100 peer-reviewed papers relating to stress, nutrition, and physical performance in the military. She has been a tennis professional, nationally ranked marathoner, qualifier for the First Women’s Olympic Marathon Trials, triathlete, skydiver with over 100 jumps, and world-wide scuba diver. In addition, she is an invited speaker throughout the country on sports nutrition and performance.

Meet Our Team

Our team draws on the experience of professionals from a variety of areas to bring together, filter and publish the best and most recent information on human optimization.


Tim Herzog, MS, EdD, LCPC, CC-AASP
Tim Herzog is the Sport Psychology Education Specialist for the Human Performance Resource Center. He enjoys delving into research on optimal performance from psychophysiology, cognitive-behavioral theory, and mindfulness-based approaches. Dr. Herzog also teaches at National University and does applied work in private practice. He is a Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor, a Certified Consultant of the Association of Applied Sport Psychology (AASP), and a member of the U.S. Olympic Committee Sport Psychology Registry. Dr. Herzog holds master’s degrees in Counseling/Sport Psychology and Clinical Psychology, as well as a doctorate in Counseling Psychology.

Dr. Herzog pulls some practical knowledge of performance from experience coaching competitive sailing and (also in sailing) as head coach at Boston College and assistant coach at the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy. In addition, he has worked with elite athletes at the U.S. Naval Academy (and two other universities), an elite sports camp, and with officers and enlisted personnel of the U.S. Army Center for Enhanced Performance at Fort Lewis.

Andrea Lindsey, MS

Andrea Lindsey serves as Senior Nutrition Scientist at the Human Performance Resource Center, Uniformed Services University. She received her Master of Science degree in Nutrition from University of Maryland, College Park. Andrea is a nutrition information specialist with extensive experience in the field of dietary supplements, and she has considerable knowledge and understanding regarding the content, safety, labeling, and marketing of these products.

Andrea joined the Uniformed Services University in 2010 after having worked for more than 16 years on a cooperative project with the Food and Nutrition Information Center, National Agricultural Library, and the Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health. At the Human Performance Resource Center her work encompasses the nutrition and dietary supplement components, which involves reviewing, evaluating, and interpreting literature; writing; and overseeing the website content in these areas. Ms. Lindsey currently maintains membership in the American Society for Nutrition and the Collegiate & Professional Sports Dietitians Association.

Christiane Minnick, BA, MA, L.Ac.
Christiane Minnick is the Lay Editor and Graphic Designer for the Human Performance Research Center. She received her bachelor's degree in Communications Arts and Design from Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond, Virginia, and has worked in the fields of graphic design, corporate identity, advertising, and marketing for over 20 years.

Christiane has a long-standing interest in how a person can influence his or her own health and well-being. In 2003, she enrolled at Tai Sophia Institute for the Healing Arts and graduated in 2007 with a Master's degree in acupuncture. She is a licensed acupuncturist and practices in Takoma Park, Maryland.

Elizabeth Davenport Pollock, PhD, MS, LCMFT, ACE-PT
Liz Davenport Pollock is the Senior Family Fitness Scientist for the Human Performance Resource Center. She oversees the family, Total Force Fitness, and psychological aspects of the HPRC site. She is constantly seeking out and participating in family-focused programs and research, interdisciplinary research that connects the mind with the body and relationships, and information about how Warfighters and their families can perform optimally on the range and at home.

Dr. Pollock has her PhD in Family Science from the School of Public Health at the University of Maryland, a master's degree in Marriage and Family Therapy, and is a licensed Marriage and Family Therapist. She approaches her work at the HPRC from both a research and practical perspective.

In addition to her family expertise, Dr. Pollock is a performer and fitness enthusiast. As a Division One collegiate athlete at Rice University and a certified Personal Trainer with the American Council on Exercise, she also brings her lived and learned performance and physical fitness experiences to the HPRC.

Ayanna Shivers, MPH
Ayanna Shivers is one of the HPRC’s Psychology Education Specialist and coordinator of the Mind Tactics section, focusing on cognitive and social aspects of human performance optimization. With an extensive academic background in psychology and public health, she has composed and implemented health research projects domestically and internationally. Her research interests include psychosocial variables of health and human performance. Also, Ayanna is an experienced research presenter and RIVA certified focus group moderator.

Kimberly J. Stoudt, Ed.D., LAT, ATC, EMT, EMT-T
Dr. Kimberly Stoudt is a nationally certified athletic trainer and emergency medical technician (basic and tactical) with more than 16 years of experience diagnosing and treating sports-related injuries and conditions. As a professor of sports medicine, she has developed and delivered lectures and labs on the recognition, evaluation, and treatment of athletic injuries. Dr. Stoudt has served on medical teams at the U.S. Olympic Training Centers in Colorado Springs and Chula Vista, as well as at the Salt Lake Olympic Winter Games, Ironman U.S. Championships, Pennsylvania State University Beaver Stadium, New York City and Philadelphia Marathons, Special Olympics Pennsylvania, and the National Hockey Festival.

Dr. Stoudt is an experienced member of the Southeastern Pennsylvania Surge Medical Assistance Response Team and an American Red Cross Disaster Action Team. She has served as a faculty leader for study abroad trips to Greece, Australia, Ecuador, Vietnam, Taiwan, El Salvador, and the Dominican Republic.

Stacey Zeno, MS
Stacey Zeno is the Program Manager for HPRC, is a graduate of Hood College with a Bachelor of Arts in Management, and of American University in Washington, D.C. with a Master of Science in Health Promotion Management. Ms Zeno has authored two published manuscripts on the topics of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome from her work in the Human Performance Laboratory (HPL) at Uniformed Services University. She is also the laboratory supervisor of HPL.

Ms. Zeno is a certified personal trainer who works with recreational athletes of all ages on a continual basis.

Carol M. Stockton, MArch
Carol Stockton is a graduate of the University of California, Los Angeles, with a Bachelor of Arts in Anthropology; the Gemological Institute of America with a Graduate Gemologist degree; and the California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, with a Masters in Architecture. She is Technical Editor for the HPRC, with a background of 20 years as technical editor for an award-winning, international, peer-reviewed professional journal as well as copyeditor and technical editor for books, monographs, and other publications. She is also the author or co-author of numerous research and other professional articles in the fields of gemology and architecture, as well as popular articles. Now retired from 10 years as a research gemologist followed by 20 years as an architect, Ms. Stockton’s avocational interests include dance and equestrian sports.

Caitlin Wong, MS, RD, LDN
Caitlin Wong is a Nutrition Education Specialist for the Human Performance Resource Center and a registered dietitian. She received her Bachelor of Science in Nutrition from Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, OH and her Master of Science degree in Nutrition from Tufts University in Boston, MA. Though her background is in clinical nutrition, Caitlin has a strong interest in adult and childhood obesity, nutrition for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities, and chronic disease prevention.


Preetha Anna Abraham, MA
Preetha Anna Abraham serves as Research Associate at the Human Performance Laboratory, USUHS. She received her Master of Arts in Applied Psychology from the University of Kerala, India, in July 1999. Her field of specialization was in Clinical and Neuropsychology.

Preetha joined Uniformed Services University in July 2004 and has since served in various capacities in the Department of Psychiatry and Department of Military and Emergency Medicine. Her research involvement at USUHS has been primarily in post-traumatic stress, traumatic brain injury, electrophysiological evaluation of attention processing, effects of allostatic load on health disparities, and heat intolerance stress.

At the Human Performance Resource Center her work primarily relates to reviewing literature articles that account for various psychological factors that affect human performance and translating them into educational materials that would benefit warfighters, researchers, and medical professionals.

Selasi Attipoe, MA
Selasi Attipoe is a Research Associate with the Uniformed Services University (USU) Center Alliance for Dietary Supplement Research. She works with a team of researchers at USU to facilitate detection of harmful supplements on the market. The team also identifies and/or conducts military-suitable dietary supplement research.

In addition, Ms. Attipoe has a significant background in kinesiogenomic research and manages human performance-related projects in the USU's Human Performance Laboratory (HPL).

She has contributed to the HPRC in several capacities: she has developed interactive tools; written blogs, research briefs, and health tips; and translated scientific literature into lay-friendly educational materials. She continues to assist the Center pro re nata.

Lani Bernier, BS
Lani Bernier is a Research Assistant for the Consortium for Health and Military Performance (CHAMP) and a contributor to HPRC. She has been a research chemist in the Human Performance Laboratory at the Uniformed Services University for 30 years. Her research involvement at USUHS/CHAMP has been with measures of stress responses to exercise. These measures were performed using RIA, ELISA, Western Blot, and other research laboratory instrumentation. She has her BS in biochemistry from the University of Maryland.

Lani is a stroke survivor with left-sided hemiplegia. As such, she brings real-life experience to the issues pertinent to wounded warriors. She contributes material to HPRC’s website about topics that affect Warfighters with physical limitations.

Josh Kazman, MS
Josh Kazman is a research associate with Uniformed Services University (USU) Human Performance Lab. He has a masters degree in Clinical Psychology with an emphasis on research from Loyola College in Baltimore. Mr. Kazman has worked at USU since 2008, and has worked on a variety of projects and publications related to health disparities, heat tolerance, cardiovascular disease, and injury prevention.

Katie Kirkpatrick, MS, RD, LDN, CDE
Katie Kirkpatrick is a Research Associate Nutritionist at the Consortium for Health and Military Performance (CHAMP) and contributor to HPRC nutrition content. She completed her dietetic internship and Master of Science in Nutrition at Boston University.

Katie has worked in the nutrition field for nearly ten years. Most recently, she spent almost four years as part of the Integrated Health team in the Internal Medicine Clinic at Walter Reed-Bethesda counseling and educating service members, veterans, and their dependents on nutrition and healthy eating.

Katie’s nutrition interests include performance nutrition, plant-based eating, mindful eating, and diabetes.

Peter Lisman, PhD, ATC
Peter Lisman is a Research Associate with the Uniformed Services University (USU) Human Performance Laboratory. He has his PhD in Exercise Physiology from the University of Miami, FL, a master’s degree in Athletic Training, and is a certified Athletic Trainer. Dr. Lisman is part of a research team that is presently examining the usefulness of various functional movement assessment tools in predicting injury in military populations and the role of heat tolerance testing in determining heat intolerance for prevention and care of exertional heat illness.

For the center, Dr. Lisman contributes healthy tips on physical fitness and human performance related topics.

Jennifer L. Prince, MA, EdD, LMFT
Dr. Jennifer L. Prince is the Outreach Program Manager for the Consortium for Health and Military Performance (CHAMP). At the Human Performance Resource Center, Dr. Prince provides subject-matter expertise on educational materials.

Dr. Prince has been a health and wellness professional for more than 27 years, serving in myriad capacities at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels. Dr. Prince holds a Master of Arts in Psychology from Chapman University and a Doctor of Education in Counseling Psychology from the American School of Professional Psychology at Argosy University-Washington, DC. She is a licensed marriage and family therapist.

Committing her entire adult life to the military, Dr. Prince has been a military spouse for more than 22 years and has served more than 15 years as an active-duty sailor and Civilian Marine. She is an ardent advocate for military families and is committed to making a positive difference in their lives.

Dianna Purvis, PhD, PMP
Dianna Purvis is the Director of Strategic Operations and Special Projects for the Consortium for Health and Military Performance (CHAMP), a Defense Center of Excellence located at the Uniformed Services University (USU) in Bethesda, MD. Dr. Purvis has an MS in Exercise Science and Health from George Mason University and a PhD in Neuroscience from George Mason University.  She is a certified Project Management Professional (PMP) and adjunct faculty at George Mason University. Her research has focused on the study of cerebrovascular hemodynamic alterations associated with blunt cervical vascular injuries in the trauma patient. She has led wellness programs for corporations, government agencies, and firefighters and is active in the DoD human performance optimization (HPO) community.

 Audrey Schoomaker, RN, BSN, E-RYT

Audrey Schoomaker is an Integrative Health Specialist for HPRC. She is a Veteran Army nurse, a certified therapeutic yoga instructor, and a certified Mind Body Skills Facilitator through the Center for Mind Body Medicine in Washington, DC. She spent five years teaching yoga at George Mason University as well as to private clients. In addition, she has co-facilitated mind-body skills groups in the Addiction Treatment Program at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, where she was also the project coordinator for the Defense and Veteran Center for Integrative Medicine on a randomized controlled trial using therapeutic yoga for chronic low back pain. As a military spouse she raised three children in several military installations across the United States and Europe.

Avi Walter, MS
Avi Walter is an Integrative Health Education Specialist at the Human Performance Resource Center. He has a Master’s of Science in Physiology & Complementary and Alternative Medicine from Georgetown University and has been trained in the scientific methodology of systematic reviews and the healing practice of Reiki (Level I). Avi has a special interest in how all forms of care can utilize placebo and placebo-like effects to improve performance and wellness.

In addition, Avi’s background in social psychology and music contribute to his ideas about self-care and stress reduction. With this skill set he provides a unique approach to helping our service members.

Media Center

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HPRC works to consolidate and distribute the best information about human performance optimization from military and civilian sources. We are glad to count the following groups among our partners in this effort.

Our Partners:

CHAMP_logo_small.jpgConsortium for Health and Military Performance
CHAMP is a Uniformed Services University (USU) and joint service effort that focuses on the health and performance of the warfighter. They are a joint medical resource for the Department of Defense for education, basic and clinical research, and clinical expertise in the area of military unique human performance optimization.

Force_Health_Protection-Readiness_logo.jpg Force Health Protection and Readiness
FHPR provides information to: safeguard the health and well-being of Service members and their families, promote and sustain a healthy and fit force, prevent injuries and illness and protect the force from health hazards, and sustain world-class medical and rehabilitative care to the sick and injured anywhere in the world.

NMCD-logo.gif Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
This database provides a comprehensive listing of brand name product ingredients and examines natural medicines through the lens of evidence based medicine.

Real_Warriors_logo.jpg Real Warriors Campaign
The Real Warriors Campaign is an initiative launched by the Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury (DCoE) to promote the processes of building resilience, facilitating recovery and supporting reintegration of returning service members, veterans and their families. The Real Warriors Campaign combats the stigma associated with seeking psychological health care and treatment and encourages service members to increase their awareness and use of these resources.

Medical Warfighter ForumMedical Warfighter Forum (WfF)
Connecting AMEDD Professionals Army-wide. The Medical Warfighter Forum (MedWfF) provides diverse and comprehensive key resources that will transform the way AMEDD professionals collaborate, share best practices, and interface across the Army Medical Department (AMEDD) enterprise.

Hearing Center of Excellence Logo

The Defense Department Hearing Center of Excellence (HCE) works to improve the health and quality of life of service members and veterans by reducing the tangible and intangible costs of hearing loss and auditory injury. Through enhanced diagnosis, assessment and hearing protection, HCE ’s five directorate groups work together to prevent injury, care for the hearing impaired, educate the armed forces about hearing loss and increase the operational effectiveness of the military.

Defense & Veterans Pain Management logo

Defense & Veterans Center for Integrative Pain Management
Established in 2003, the Defense and Veterans Center for Integrative Pain Management (DVCIPM) seeks to improve the management of pain in military and civilian medicine. Through clinical research efforts, it has become a model for effective integration of acute and chronic pain medicine.

Vision Center of ExcellenceVision Center of Excellence
The Vision Center of Excellence (VCE) is charged with improving the care of military personnel and veterans affected by eye injuries and diseases, including visual dysfunctions related to traumatic brain injury. In addition, they are developing a Defense and Veterans Eye Injury and Vision Registry (Vision Registry) to track eye injuries and promote research into treatment, rehabilitation, and restoration.

CRSR LogoThe Center for Rehabilitation Sciences Research (CRSR) advances the rehabilitative care for service members with combat related injuries through synergistic research projects and treatment strategies to promote the successful return to duty and community reintegration of injured service members.

Contact Us

We welcome your questions from the field regarding human performance issues, comments about the work we do, suggestions for how we can serve you, and queries for collaboration. Please contact us at and your email will be forwarded to the appropriate research specialist or director.